Factors in the developmental context, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) transnationalization of management change

The changes, which happened in Mali during the last ten years, could be placed in a transnational context, whose pace of change cannot be only managed by the will of the local governors. This transnational aspect of change and its management could be possibly understood at different levels and sectors of activity. Hereby it will be mainly referred to the political and the economic sector.

The political sector: Characterized by the movement of democratization, which started for the first time in this country in 1989/90 with the evolution of private independent newspapers and the development of political groups, the political changes in Mali were caused through internal objectives. They can be partially traced to certain far-off external events: the changes which happened in socialist countries and which have weakened the foundations of all of these regimes; the Franco-African summit with the principle of partnership between the African member states, France officially encouraged the democratic process of the countries by assuring a greater support to those countries.

The economic sector, where the structural adjustment programs lead to the change during this period, the management of change is the most characteristic example for the transnational activity. In fact, essentially financed through external resources, the implementation of the structural adjustment programs is conceived and controlled through the financial institutions of Bretton Woods.

According to the transnationalization of change whose rhythm and pace depends on the local governors, it's necessary to improve the sensitivity of the citizens towards an increase of the combined efforts of countries to internalize changes. It is also necessary to take maximum advantage of the relevant aspects and to conserve the social stability of the communities.

In this context of alteration, certain social groups, especially the most vulnerable ones, express specific needs and demands. For example, one of them is to assist on redimensioning and change of the range and disposition of needs and demands of the state and of the private sector.

b) imperative to increase gender/women sensitivity

c) groups in society with needs and demands

The situation for women:

Women represent 51% of the population of Mali. The majority lives in a rural environment. The women in Mali marry early; one out of two women is married at the age of 16 and 45% of all women live in polygamic households. The women in their triple function of reproduction, production and citizen are confronted with the following problems:

Sanitation problem: Since the early start of the fecund life and the high number of maternity per woman (in average six, seven infants) and the hostility of the environment, a woman is exposed to various illnesses, which weaken her. The development of activities in the field of maternal and infantile health and planned familyhood is not sufficient to resolve the problems and maternal protection for the simple reason because women make only scarcely use of this services.

Economic problems: These are essentially the background and the valorization of female work. It seems that the majority of women is barely prepared for economic activities outside the house; in certain cases, the time left after the domestic work has to be used for resting. A study on the work of women in Mali shows that in average a married woman works around 17 hours per day.

Nevertheless, the work of women is less valued especially in the rural setting, where work is oriented towards the transformation and conservation of food, as the gathering of products, the trading of animals, the transformation of food products and the commercialization.

Judicial problems: The essential impediment here is the inexistence of legislative dispositions inciting school and universitarian education of girls to professional training throughout the urban milieu, with the protection of the female agendas and followed by a female career in different technical and administrative professions. After 30 years of independence, the work of women still resembles her marital status privileging more the domestic function than the evolution of a professional career.

The situation of children:

The problems of children are closely linked to those of their mothers. The difficult sanitation situation of the country affects considerably the situation for children. Despite the efforts made in this field, the infant mortality continues to deprive the country of a lot of his human potential (7,1% in 1987). The situation of children is marked by a severe malnutrition, a limited vaccinal coverage and mediocre instruction. This situation is even worse for young abandoned children or premature orphans, adolescents and unsocial youngsters.

Situation of rural population:

In Mali 80% of the population lives in the countryside. In spite of the efforts, the rural population continues to meet with difficulties, which hinder its economic development and its social well being.

About the economic plan: The enacting of inadequate policies in the agricultural field didn't encourage the initiative of the countrymen to produce and accumulate surplus. The prices for agricultural products stayed artificially fixed for a long time. Since it was unrewarding there was less incitement for the producer to increase the production and the commercialization of surplus. The rural economy became therefore a maintaining economy. The economic infrastructure (streets, storage, etc.) did not develop noticeably, which could facilitate the access and the desenclavement between the zones of production and consumption.

About the social plan: The work to cover the fundamental needs such as the access to drinking water, health care, education and alphabetization still remains insufficient. Concerning the waterworks in the villages, remarkable progress was accomplished with the massive help of the international community to protect the rural population from the droughts of the years 1973 and 1982. By the means of 20 litre per day and per inhabitant, 2.3 millions or 37.7% of the rural population has access to drinking water. The rest (62.3%) continues to provide themselves with traditionally gained water.

d) private sector needs and demands

The changes which took place in the 1990s have lead to a change in profits between the state and the private sector, characterized by the transformation of the role of the state and the recovery of the private sector (public society) with the emergence of new needs and demands for each of these sectors. The negative forces, which hinder the expansion of the private sector, have different origins. Meanwhile these investigated:

Reform measures in favour of the private sector

Following actions have been undertaken: (1) promulgation of trade regulations; (2) revision of investment regulations; (3) adoption of sectorial measures within the structural adjustment and the redefinition of a new price policy; and (4) fiscal incitements were implemented as well to the "cordon douanier"(8) on intermediary products as to the level of the "fiscalite pure"(8) through the reduction of the rates of BIC and contractual contributions.

By implementing these different measures, the state has acknowledged that its management in certain areas was not to its advantage and that its role has to fill part of the private sector account, assuming the default of the public enterprises.

The new role assigned to the private sector:

In order that the private sector of the is able to play a successive role in the Malian economy, it has to be organized in the following manner. The administration, playing a legislative role in the reorganization of the private sector, has to consider the economic and social context. The future regulation of business represents a tiny part of the solution.

Meanwhile, it is because of the participants themselves of the private sector that they cannot develop because of: (1) abandoning speculative behaviour; (2) the costs of production; and (3) change in the mentality of trade/wholesale as well as industry.

Fraud prevention

Finally, in order to help the private sector through its major difficulties, the state proposed a moral contract, where the economic operators participate to help the state suppress the fraud by sensibilizing the private sector on the whole towards correct payment of taxes and duties. Therefore the state on his part engages in simplifying all administrative operations in order to facilitate as much as possible the activities of the economic operators. Furthermore arrangements have been made to protect the private sector against abuse through state employees.

e) local government needs and demands

The government has to limit itself more and more to foster economic growth through the promotion of investments and the encouragement of the private sector by reducing its intervention in the economic sector.

The political changes in Mali developed in a violent manner, which lead to their compliance during the months of January and March 1991. They hardly managed to shake the state in its assets to make a distinct remission of the functions of its diverse components and to cut profoundly its authority. This is why the restoration of the authority of the state appeared as the superior necessity and an imperative demand.

To obtain this, certain measures were imposed: (1) energetic fight against the peoples' justice (unlawful) which took over in the cities; (2) creation of a new administrative environment, stressing the notion of impartiality and neutrality of the state; (3) reinforcement of the means of intervention to maintain the process; (4) improvement of the administrative management; and (5) placing of new bodies on top of the local governments and specialized administrations.

f) mass migration and its consequences

The growth rates of the urban Malian population show the increasing importance of the cities and urban agglomerations and also indicate that Mali went through a significant rural-urban migration. The current results of different polls yet do not allow regarding it in a satisfied manner. The migration, however, leads to important concentration of population in some cities in the south, generally Segou, Sikasso and the district of Bamako in particular. The density of population in these regions on the whole exceeds 15 to 17 inhabitants per square-kilometre. In the urban areas the number of registered inhabitants has passed from 16% in 1976 to 22% in 1987 and creates accommodation and work-related problems. This migratory thrust also imposes infrastructural problems in the urban centres and as a visible consequence leads to an unorganized expansion of the suburban area.

Emigration: Three million Malians live outside of Mali, especially in Africa, Middle East and Europe. Despite their contribution to the national economy, the emigrated Malians always had the feeling to be neglected by Malian authorities. The administrative fuss and slow pace have discouraged those that tended to invest in Mali.

Since the creation of a department related to the out-of-state Malians, which proved the will of the authorities to acknowledge these citizens from abroad with the same rights as the Malians in Mali, the aspirations of emigrated Malians has risen.

Additionally, in regard to securing the existence of the out-of-state Malians and to protecting their interests materially and morally, initiatives have been undertaken towards certain countries with Malian residents. Agreements have been signed: residence agreements, agreement on the free circulation of people and goods, agreement to abolish visas, establishment of consular conventions, judicial conventions, social security conventions and conventions for the work force.

g) environmental concerns

The demographic pressure contributed to the deterioration and damaging of the environment, which are: (1) clearing of trees to satisfy the increasing needs of wood; and (2) expansion of the agricultural surface for the alimentary needs, etc. All this factors contribute to the damaging of the environment with a corollary acceleration of the desertification and deterioration of vegetal surface.

With an estimated consummation of fire wood between 650 kg to 750 kg per person per year, the needs of wood for the whole population will go from 5.410 million tons in 1987 to expected 19.871 million tons in the year 2022. This corresponds to a forest surface of 3781 hectares. In the period of 1987 to 2022, about 17 million hectares of woods will be destroyed. The actual Malian forest is not able to support this demand for a long time. The forests, reservoirs and parks are virtually endangered.

h) economic decline or need for economic growth

i) development of political pluralism

The pluralism development in Mali is very strong and guarantees to each citizen the freedom of speech, freedom of holding political gatherings and the free choice of its association. This principle is confirmed by the constitution in Art. 28 which contains that the political parties compete in terms of elections; they form freely and perform their activities within the requirements determined by law. This law determines the minimal requirements of the constitution and the functioning of the political formation such as the regulation #2/CTSP of April 5, 1991. The political pluralism was reinforced by an important support: equal access to "Medias d'etat" consigned by a text, which is based on the principles of the freedom of the press and plural believes.

j) other


Critical policy areas, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) education

The government is concerned about the weakness and decrease of school enrollment rates in primary education, despite the relatively high expenses for education. The enrollment rates for grammar school are estimated about 31% with 24% at public schools. The government is also concerned about the inadequacy between the education and training offers compared to the needs on the job market, taking into consideration the number of unemployed people and people employed below their qualifications leaving secondary and higher education.

Within the project of improving the sector of education, financed by the World Bank and other support funds, the government has decided to particularly improve the quality of the education at all levels and to increase of enrolment rates for primary schools from 31% to 36% until 1995. At the same time it aims at reinforcing a balance between education/training and the needs on the job market.

These objectives have to be realized by: (1) adding supplementary classes; (2) introducing double vacation; (3) providing new presentation of courses; (4) limiting the number of students admitted to public secondary and superior education; and (5) revising education programs and improving the classes.

b) social security

Actually, Mali does not have a social security system. The workers benefit only from a retirement system and family bonuses handled by the retirement cashier of Mali for the civil servants and by the National Institute for State Insurance for the other workers. The majority of the workers (those from the informal sector and the countryside) do not benefit from any system.

But since 1991, the different insurance companies proposed a quite comprehensive social security system. Unfortunately the raising of the rates (Minimum 5000 F CFA per month) exceeds the capacity of the monthly salaries in Mali.

c) health

The health measurements in Mali are within the lowest of the whole world. One infant of four dies before the age of 5 and life expectation is not going over more than 45 years. The State increases his priority towards the primary health in order to realize the objective "Health for everybody in the year 2000." To achieve this, the government works closely with the private sector to improve the management, benefits and the financing of the health services.

The government focuses its efforts more on the policy orientation of the sector and the support services, then on the direct provision of benefits. It also pursues a strategy of decentralizing the management of the health services, which gives power to the communities to open and run their proper care centres. The legislation has already been revised in order to give appropriate incitements for the creation of doctors' offices and private pharmacies. The government had also decided to contribute at least 8% of its expenses to health services in 1992 and to encourage an increased participation of the beneficiaries at the costs of health care.

Ultimately to improve an efficient utilization of the resources, the authorities have adopted an essential medication policy. Taking into consideration the importance of the reduction of demographic growth, the authorities have elaborated a project to document the demographic policy and family planning.

d) environment

The progressing erosion of the ground is the most serious environmental problem in Mali. The formulation of a national plan to fight the desertification (PNLCD) in 1985 and its enactment in 1987 show the engagement of the state to address this problem. This plan included 8 distinguished programs from ecological to adjustment policies. This plan all by itself is not enough to resolve the problem of environmental damages and it is supported by a program on natural resource management for the sectors of agriculture, pasture and forest. Consequently in 1990, a national environmental solidarity was created by the Agricultural and Environmental Ministry with the responsibility to enact an environmental strategy, such as assuring the succession and revision of existing environmental projects and new pilot projects on the management of natural resources.

Certain 'Operations de Developpement Rural'(ODR) projects and programs have integrated to different extends a participatory approach towards the research of protecting renewable natural resources. Thus the 'Compagnie Malienne du Developpement des Textiles' (CMDT) in South-Mali develops actions, sensibilizing the people for anti-erosive compositions, rational pasture arrangements and the integration of breeding into agriculture. Likewise the development of the project West-Sahel (PRODESO) and the operation development of breeding in Mopti (ODEM) have integrated a soil concept in the organization of the committees of ranchers and farmer associations.

e) immigration

f) criminal justice

Until 1992, the maintenance of the public order was performed by the security forces. Despotism and abuse of authority happened often on the part of the public sworn servants, omitting to report their activities to the judiciary police of the public attorney.

The contribution of the security magistrate on the transactions and harmonization of the social records was negatively affected by the gaps of his status, the difficult living conditions, the indecent working conditions, training during the work and a documentation almost non-existent and a outstripped legislation, unadapted and incomplete. The exceptional jurisdictions have been established with the increasing shortage of personnel. The Constitutional sections and the accounts of the Supreme Court live in a permanent lethargy. The execution of judicial decisions was not appropriately secured. Because of the lack of an adequate penitentiary policy, the centres of detention/prisons don't correspond any longer with the modern ideas of criminology; the management of the services and the penitentiary archives are also totally outdated. The lack of communication dampens the report between the judge and the members of judicial professions.

The bloody rebellion of March 1991 has not spared the local judicators, which already were in a piteous state. A number of localities had been sacked and plundered. The prisons of Bamako and Kayes have been totally destroyed. So that the justice can appropriately play its role of social regulation, 2 types of measures have been envisioned:

Immediate measures:

Long term measures on the training and censure of the content:

The legislation established immediately after the independence of Mali does not correspond any more with the modern socio-economic realities of Mali. It needs to be modified.

The penal procedures should allow to review the authorities, who are charged with the application of the penal law, to redefine their power, which they have and to insert in a strict manner the measures pertained to human rights and the individual freedom. In this regards the jurisdiction by exemption has been abolished and their competencies were devolved to the jurisdiction by common law. The indictments foreseen by the penalty statutes have to be better adapted to modern forms of delinquency and useless dispositions should be removed.

The regulations of the "Procedure Civil" have to provide a better performance of the civil justice. The regulation of lawsuits has to enhance separate judiciary authorities, excluding police authorities. Finally the judicial gaps existing in certain areas of the modern life have to be filled to allow the judge to play its role as a regulator of social relations.

g) agriculture

The agricultural policy in Mali stays focused to first of all providing alimentary abundance, then the development of exploitable goods, particularly cotton. The structural weaknesses of the Malian economy result from the predominance of a rural economy focused on self-subsistence and offering hardly accumulable surplus. The rural economy has provided 50 to 55% of the PIB between 1984 and 1990. The part of the rural economy that seemed to be in regression until 1984, dropping from 58% in 1981 to 50% in 1984, developed to be always the principal sector of the Malian economy. Thus during the period 1987 to 1990, the average annual growth rates was 2.6%; the created, added value passed from 277 milliards F CFA in 1987, 296.3 milliards in 1988, 334.4 milliards in 1989 to 330.7 milliards in 1990.

Despite this ascent and these important efforts undertaken in favour of the development of this sub-sector, the systems of animal production passed a critical situation. This critical case reached a concerning dimension with the drought and the economic recession. Through the numerous manifestations of this crisis, the following could be observed: (1) heavy mortality of livestock; (2) forced selling of animals; (3) mutations for the pasture societies; (4) damage of the resources: water, soil and pasture; and (5) decline of the contribution of the breeding sub-sector within the national production. Nevertheless, since 1986 the reconstruction of the livestock was supported under satisfying conditions for the pasture.

The sub-sector forestry represents 14.3% of the primary sector, and its added value was maintained at the rate of 15% during the decennial. In terms of production, at constant prices, the value of the forestry has passed from 30.9 milliards of F CFA in 1982 to 45.7 milliards of F CFA in 1989, which is an increase of 35%. The controlled retimbered areas have increased from 273 ha in 1980 to 22 723 ha in 1989, whereas the land cultivation acquired 300 000 to 400 000 ha per year.

The sub-sector fishing (1.82% of the PIB of the primary sector) has dropped its value from 4.21% to 2.65%. In terms of production, its value decreased about 32%, from 18.6 milliards in 1982 to 12.6 milliards in 1989. During the same period the fishing production went from 100 000 tons per year to 70 000 tons per year.

h) industrial

The Malian industrial sector relatively little developed is influenced by the predominance of the public sector, whose significance meanwhile diminished progressively especially since 1991 with the enacting of the 'Programme d'Ajustement du secteur des Entreprises Publiques'(PASEP).

The sector was the focus of the efforts of revival within the program of the economic reform, regarding to improve the management of the public resources and to create favourable conditions for a renewal of the private sector. According to the results of the Second Industrial Census in 1989-90, the situation of the sector has declined with the liquidation of certain public enterprises in 1990-91, the change of the legal disposition with the disengagement of the state and the physical damage of the enterprises by the public as well as the private sector from the events of March 1991. The added value created in the sector stayed modest. It was 67.6 milliards F CFA in 1987, 73.7 milliards in 1988 and 78.1 milliards in 1989.

The mining sector has experienced an average annual growth rate of -0.6% during the time 1987-1990. Meanwhile despite this decline the branch has gained a strong increase of 5.3% with the exploitation of the gold mine of Syama and the expansion of the gold mines at Kalana. The exploitation of SOMILO (Societe des Mines d'Or du Loulo) is delayed. The added value of the sector went from 6.9% milliards F CFA in 1987 to 8.5% milliards F CFA in 1990, which states an average annual increase of 5.4%.

i) public works

Urbanities and habitat:

Very few actions have been defined in this field, except for those of the Projet Urbain du Mali:

Despite the creation of real estate societies, there is a real housing crisis, the realization of accommodation at sold locations and the accommodation (SEMA) at Vitalization-Faladie and particularly in Vitalization, where 70% of the population don't live in decent conditions.

The Societe d'Equipement du Mali (SEMA) could not realize its objective to construct houses, except for those of a single quarter (Faladie). It was in 1990, that the national accommodation policy has been adopted by the government, and the hope rose at the end of 1991 with the project of the creation of the Bank Habitat.


Telecommunication is one of the principal components of the policy of desenclavement. The telephone network is still scarcely developed and the density is very feeble:

j) urban decay/infrastructure

The social and economic environmental constraints weigh heavy on the urban development in Mali. Regarding the fast increase of the urban population, especially in the capital, the state, on one hand, does not manage to safeguard the existent urban infrastructures. On the other hand, it is not able to improve these infrastructures and expand them to the new quarters because of the lack of budgetary resources. The sanitation is deplorable in all the cities of the country. The collection of the solid waste (household waste) is not regularly assured. The problems are more serious on the boundaries of the big cities. The under-equipment of the communities, the deficiency of financial means and the lack of the population's interest toward the environment, which is opposed to their daily problems, cause that the image of the cities stays less attractive.

Since 1987 to 1991 actions were undertaken:

These actions were included in the second urban project with the support of the World Bank.

Outside of Segou, which has benefited of a reconditioning project, the effort regarding reconditioning was focused on the collection of household waste by the community services, the private enterprises and on the popular organizations, especially at Bamako.

The macro economic reform:

One of its essentially important components was the public enterprises as the reform has been intensified since 1989. The adjustment program of the sector of the public enterprises aims the following objectives:

The current assortment of the program covers 35 public enterprises. Since its establishment, 15 public enterprises have been liquidated. All the assets of the liquidated enterprises have been totally of partially sold to the new owner.

For those who are concerned about the disengagement selection, the restructuring of the public enterprises covered by the program lead the state to give up the totality of the assets to a mixed or private institution. The disengagement of the state or the privatization is shown by a participation of the state limited to 20%.

A second collection including 22 enterprises, not covered by the current program has been elaborated. These enterprises have been classified into 3 categories:

1. Usine Malienne de Produite Pharmaceutiques (UMPP);

2. Aeroporte du Mali (ADM);

3. Societe Nationale de Recherche et d'Exploitation Minieres du Mali (SONAREM);

4. Centre National de Recherche et d'Experimentation pour le Batiment et les Traveaux Publics (CNREX/BTP);

5. Entrepots Maliens au Senegal (EMASE);

6. Entrepots Maliens an Cote d'Ivoire (EMACI).

7. Union Laitiere de Bamako (ULB)

8. Societe Nationale d'Etudes pour le Developpement (SNED)

9. Societe Malienne d'Etudes pour la Commercialisation des Fruits et Legumes (FRUITEMA);

10. Operation Puits (O.P);

11. Base pour l'Equipement des Transports Routiers (BETRAM).

12. Abattoir Frigorifique de Bamako (AFB);

13. Pharmacie Veterinaire du Mali (PVM);

14. Societe de Gestion et d'Exploitation des Mines d'Or de Kalana (SOGEMORK);

15. Societe Navale du Mali (SONAM);

16. Huilerie Cotonniere du Mali (HUICOMA);

17. Societe Libyo-Malienne pour l'Elevage et l'Agriculture (SOLIMA).

18. Telecommunications Internationales du Mali (TIM);

19. Office de Gestion de l'Hotel de l'amitie (OGHA);

20. Office des Relais Touristiques de L'Interieur (ORTI);

21. Societe Malienne d'Ingenierie et de Transports Maritimes (SOMITRAM);

22. Etablissement d'approvisionnement et de Stockage en Produite Petroliere (PETROSTOCK)

k) micro economic reform

l) macro economic management

The government reinforces the fiscal effort in the macro economic field and tends to contain the expenses to achieve progressively a vital budgetary position. In spite of the strong increase of development expenses and expenses related to the improvement of Cheques Posteaux and to the program of voluntary leave, the budgetary deficit of 1991, on the basis of obligations and excluded benefits, was limited to 75.3 milliards F CFA, which is 10.9% of the PIB.

The financial policies stayed oriented towards the release of the profits of the private sector. The government continues to try to reinforce the situation of the public finances, to regulate the expenses of its obligation at the conclusion of the privatization or of the liquidation of certain state enterprises and to reduce its engagement in regards to the banking system.

The structural measures, mentioned above, have to start on an average profit of the total returns of 16.9% of the PIB during the time 1991-93, which corresponds to an average annual increase of 5%. The government applies equally a policy of expense moderation, which should take the return of the current expenses of 13.4% of the PIB (included the annexed budgets and the special funds) in 1991 to 12.2% in 1993.

m) other


National context

a) population size and age dynamics

Between 1960 to 1976 the Malian population has increased from 4.1 million inhabitants to 6.4 million, which an annual increase rate of 2.82% within that time period. Between 1976 to 1987, the total population has passed 7.6 million after the 'Recensement General de la Population et de l'Habitat' in April 1987, which is an increase rate of 1.8% per year. 5 regions of Mali have a total population of more than 1 million inhabitants in 1987: Segou (1.340 million), Sikasso (1.311 million), Mopti (1.283 million), Koulikoro (1.198 million) and Kayes (1.067 million). The regions of Tombouctou and Gao have each of them a total number of less than 500 000 person, precisely 460 000 inhabitants and 381 000 inhabitants.

The structure of the population is characterized by a considerable population of young people, as a consequence of the high fertility rate of women at the age to beget. The young people, less than 15 years old, represent 46% of the total population. The elder people between 15 and 64 years old represent 51% and those older than 65 years equal 3% of the total population. The apportionment by sex is marked by a predominance of women, precisely 51% to 49%.

b) economics dynamics

Mali, classified as a less advanced country, is also ranked within the countries with the weakest indication of human development of the world. Estimated at 0.072 in 1991, this indication placed Mali on the 156th position, after Burkina Faso (154th) and Niger (155th). The evolution of the socio-economic situation allowed explaining without however justifying the delay.

The analysis of the evolution of the economic and social situation in Mali shows negative tendencies articulated within many years meanwhile with some signs (still fragile) of recovery at the end of 1989. The following can be noticed:

All these tendencies, which add to the geographic factors and the evolution of the international economic environment, show many constraints that hinder the development of the Malian economy. Following constraints have been noticed:

The performance of the Malian economy at the end of December 1990 can be describes as following:

The budgetary deficit on the basis of obligations and excluded donations, was 54.4 milliards F CFA, (equals 8.2% of the PIB) opposed to forecasted 61.7 milliards F CFA (equals 9.3% of the PIB). This result was obtained according to a significant control of expenses (171.3 milliards F CFA in total opposed to forecasted 171.7 milliards) and an increase of total returns, which gained 116.9 milliards F CFA opposed to forecasted 110 milliards. The external debts of Mali went through a vertiginous augmentation during the last years. In comparison to 1976 the volume of obligations and debts has been multiplied by 7.5, which corresponds to an average annual indebtedness of 69 milliards.

In terms of the debt service, the amount of interest payments and the reimbursement of the main dues before the reclassification was 20 milliards F CFA in 1984, 40 milliards in 1985, 31.6 milliards in 1989 and 50.1 milliards F CFA in 1990. The effective payment was 19 milliards F CFA in 1985, 26 milliards in 1989 and 26.1 milliards in 1990.

By the entrance of Mali in the Club of Paris it was allowed to obtain 28 milliards regrouping money. Mali has also benefited in 1988, 1989 and 1990 from the annulation of 60.496 milliards F CFA. These remittances have been according to France (48 milliards), Germany (10.352 milliards), US (1.700 milliards), Marocco (0.274 milliards) and Yugoslavia (0.170 milliards). But in regards to the income (537 milliards F CFA in 1985, 545 milliards F CFA in 1986, 604 milliards in 1987, 727 milliards in 1988 737.6 milliards in 1989 and 750.3 milliards in 1990) the obtained remittances were extremely low.

c) social dynamics, including migration/refugee movement

The employment dilemma becomes more and more the central element of the social dynamics in Mali. In April 1991, the Ministry of Civil Service and Labour has enacted a census on young graduates without employment. They were estimated at about 11 376. This figure plus the statistics provided by the Office National de la Main d'Oeuvre et de l'Emploi (ONMOE) gives an idea of the extreme tension which exists on the labour market in Mali. This employment crisis is felt within the rural field as well as in the urban environment.

In the rural domain the state of the constantly underemployed is due to the interrelated effect of drought and the ineffectiveness of political structure, which provoked a massive migration of rural young people to the urban centres. In the urban zones the unemployment problems of the young graduates has worsened through the dismissal of personnel of public enterprises and employees of the civil service, which retired and for the most part didn't manage their social reinsertion.

To face this explosive situation, only some timid actions of self-employment concerning the young graduates and the releases of the state sector have been undertaken. Since 1989 to 1991 have only lead to the creation of 345 positions within 39 new enterprises.

Because of the tension, which dominates in this sector, the government concentrates its efforts towards the most sensible groups of the unemployment crisis: the young graduates, dismissed workers and voluntary leaves of the public service.

d) poverty alleviation, massive unemployment

The fight against poverty is mainly seen as a fight against unemployment. The implementation of reform measures to improve the disastrous condition of the national economy has been roughly felt by the most fragile and also the biggest groups of society. The lack of the former genuine policy, promoting young people and employment opportunities, has exasperated the social tensions by multiplying the number of unemployed people and persons on voluntary leave from the civil service have not succeeded to reinsert.

The dismissed workers because of the liquidation or the restructuring of state companies and enterprises added up through the years, also graduates in substantial numbers in search of their first employment. These different social classes thought to have good reasons to gain improvement of their living conditions by the state. This is why since then they had multiplied their claims through organized manifestations, associations or audiences that correspond to different responsibilities of the state.

With the establishment of the 'Programme d'Ajustement Structurel' (PAS), the government has enacted a strategy for the creation of employment opportunities in the private sector to cover at social costs the dismissals of the public sector and the recruitment-stop of the civil service. For this result help from many contributors for the financing of PME/PMI was needed. The main projects in this field are:

e) labour relations issues

An incitement policy for the civil servants is necessarily defined by the financial means. The factors of demotivation are relatively precise identified: small salaries, lack of transparency and objectivity in the career management, bad working conditions, all things which add to the dissatisfaction and discouragement of the servants.

It is obvious that the civil servants are not in the necessary disposition to serve satisfactorily. This can be experienced through the performance and the quality of the service within public administration.

This situation differs from the cost of the administration, which seems to be abnormally high compared to other state standards. This paradox could be explained as such: the public administration personnel is demotivated because of the low salaries and the mediocre work conditions, though the state has to cover all the caused expenses in order to maintain this personnel and the functioning of the public administration.

The notation system introduced by the reform of 1978 was aimed to the double goal: dynamization and simplification. This system has unfortunately produced a contrary effect because of the lack of objectivity and its iniquity. It has initiated a source of frustration and discouragement of the employees since the improvement of the salarial situation became dependable. To correct this situation, the laws 91-40 and 91-41 have initiated a promotion system and a new account grid.

f) increasing role of judiciary

The increasing role of the judiciary in the case of Mali resulted essentially from the change of circumstances and accessory because of the modification of judicial legislation. Actually the principle of the separation of power, which endorses the independence of justice has always existed in the Malian legislation.

Nevertheless the existence of a constitutional, single party and the fact that it was the first state institution weakened the independence of justice, which depended like all the other institutions without appeal on the party. Additionally the Chief of State was the Secretary General of the party. This function which predominated all the others also influenced him in being the first Magistrate of the country and the President of the Superior Council of the Magistrature.

But since the genesis of the pluralism policy, a real independence of the magistrature and a more important role of the judiciary developed in the Malian society. This change has really started in 1990/1991 with the annulation by the Supreme Court of a decision by the ministers for the dismissal of administrative officials (the Minister of Justice had dismissed a magistrate and Minister of Education had dismissed a professor for higher education).

This recrudescence of the judicial role results accessory in a modification of the legislative disposition. In this sense:

g) increasing impact of media and media relations

The press was for a very long time a state monopoly. Towards the end of the regime of Moussa Traore it played a very important role for the conscience of the people.

Until 1992, the work of journalists in Mali has been performed within a judicial context, congested with papers either out-dated, or little adapted to the constantly changing reality. Additionally, there existed no paper specifying the profession of journalists and also offering career possibilities. The rules, which covered the activities of the press in Mali, were only directed towards the written press. So nothing authorized formally the creation of private radio and television and no protection was conceived for citizens who felt slandered, injured or insulted on the air or in the columns of newspapers.

The proliferation of the titles of the press, private radio and with the possibilities of private television, they became sharp-pointed and short-lived, the problems of journalistic deontology. It is though necessary and expected to elaborate a Journalist Charta that has to preserve the rights of the journalists and protect the interests of the public. When this Charta has been elaborated, the Professionals in this field can establish an 'Ordre des Journalistes du Mali'.

Within the increasing impact of the media in society, the problem of the access of parties to the state media has finally been dealt with through two essential principles:

h) decreasing resources available to government

There is a certain irregularity in the evolution of the direct tax revenues, with a strong decline in 1985 (-4.4% growth compared to 1984). At the end of 1988, a progression was observed, emphasized by a substantial increase in 1990 (+19.5% growth compared to 1989):

The total earnings of the national budget reach in average +9.7% per year. The years 1987 and 1986 have signified considerable losses of -3.6% and -1.1% principally due to the substantial decrease of custom tariffs and indirect taxes.

i) relations of public service with politicians/ministers

Beyond the general principles of the advancement of the civil service, which directs the relations between the civil servants and politicians (Ministers), puts the civil servants in a principally neutral position and also protects them, the relations between the civil service and politicians are in a subordinate way, emphasized by judicial means that expose the ministers compared to the civil servants to give them indirectly orientation in different perspectives:

It is this second group of staff members where the influence of politicians is the most profound. It shows through the frequent changes on the level of qualified, superior employees. Closest associate of the Minister, the law offered the possibility to politicians to appoint employees without strict rules for the advancement in the civil service. But to limit the extent of this phenomenon, the law determines the list of these superior employees, by dividing between:

j) growing differentiation and interaction of various spheres in society

With a PNB of $ 230 per citizen, Mali is one of the poorest countries on the planet. Only 15% of its citizens have access to health care, 22% to sanitation, 38% to drinking water, 38% are literate and the rates for school education are 16%. These index numbers of different areas are in reality hidden by an uneven distribution of revenues. With the lack of all detailed official statistics on the uneven distribution of revenues, the elements underneath give an idea about the social differences within the population.

Since 1987, the establishment of different structural adjustment programs has emphasized the pauperization of the most fragile portion of the Malian society by:

k) other

In the field of desenclavement inside and outside of the country, the accomplishments were the following:

Meanwhile, in respect to the extension and enclavement of the territory, these efforts stayed insufficient to actually initialize the economic development of the country towards the accomplishment of a dense and effective transport system.


International context

a) size, availability, etc. of foreign investment

During the period of 1987 to 1991 a global payment of 397 969 million F CFA has been spent to projects, distributed in this manner (in million F CFA and %):




National Financing



State Budget

39,055 (55%)



27,555 (38.9%)



  4,555 (6.1%)


External Financing




183,300 (56%)



143,800 (44%)



182,000 (55.9%)



142,000 (43.4%)



    2,200 (0.7%)



The allocation of the external financing shows a preponderance of subsidies (56% against 44% for the loans). The bilateral and multilateral sources are divided in the same proportions as the external financing with 55.9% and 49.4% against 0.7% for the ONG.

The financing projected on average terms included donations and loans for the investment program such as resources from the World Bank and the FMI within the structural adjustment program. Following the projections of the resources origin of the World Bank and the co-financing, it has to increase during the period of 1991 to 1993 to 38 milliards of F CFA. During that period, the external financial assistance of donations and loans in order to present a relief of debts, it has to increase to about 373 milliards F CFA.

The projections on average terms of the payment balance demonstrate that in spite of the fact that internal savings increase, the establishment of public investment program of Mali would remain largely dependent on foreign financial assistance. But in order to be able to follow its development strategy on a solid financial base, Mali continues its inquiry to obtain donations and loans to certified terms.

b) amount and types of technology transfer-in

Since recently, the technology transfers go through a special assistance modality: the co-management. It affects state enterprises and institutions and it holds the confidence of the foreign partners in the principal positions of the technical and financial management of an enterprise in order to revitalize it during a given time. This co-management is generally accompanied by financial assistance for the technical and financial recovery of the enterprise. A lot of hope had been placed in this genuine technique of technology transfer, which after some testing time, is far away of showing anticipated results.

As a matter of fact after the period of co-management, these enterprises have neither obtained technical restoration nor financial revitalization, proving that no technological transfer has really taken place. Besides this method, the classical system composed of technology imports and subsidies still exists.

This is why the works of engineering (building bridges and water dams) and rural expertise (restoration of the installations of the office in Niger) whose delivery is assigned to big foreign enterprises. They create the opportunities for technology transfer in a way where they associate with local enterprises.

But seen within the context of the Malian labour market, which is characterized by an abundance of less qualified manpower and a shortage of capital, within the field of technology transfer Mali encourages high standards of labour technology. These concerns show through the new investment regulation of abolishing exemptions, which benefited the imports of goods equipment until 1991. In return the labour market, especially the young graduates, become a more and more important criterion for the tax relief.

c) nature of markets for national products

The Malian exports are dominated by cotton, which itself raises 80% of export revenues. The delicate economic situation of the country in the 1990s results mainly from the decline of the cotton prices on the international market. In other respects the export markets for cotton characterize themselves by a vivid competition between different producer countries from which many have lower production costs than Mali. This competition is also emphasized by the competition that applies synthetic fibres on the cotton, so that the market narrows itself more and more down.

The decrease of the value of cotton on the world market translates itself by a more and more difficult situation for the Compagnie Malienne de Developpement du Textile (CMDT), where the working deficits have reached 4 milliards in 1991/1992 and are expected to reach 8 milliards F CFA in 1993. To reconquer the export markets, actions concerning the cotton quality and reduction of production costs are foreseen with a refocusing of the CMDT activities on cotton.

Mali also exports gold.

For the markets of the sub-regions, Mali exports livestock and farm products. Since recently it also tends to export millet, sorghum and corn to countries like Mauritania and Cape Verde.

The tightness of the Malian export markets combined with limited number of the export products is shown in the numbers of the country's external trade. In 1991 the exports have achieved 93.8 milliards F CFA against a forecast of 95.8 milliards F CFA when the imports reached 168.2 milliards F CFA. The efforts of export diversification are mainly oriented towards the mining sector in general and gold in particular.

d) structural adjustment policies and programmes

The development of profoundly unbalanced economy lead to stating responses through economic reform programs supported by the development partners. The program principles in progress are the following:

Program with FMI

Programs maintained by the drawing of resources (besides the quota) of FMI, dated to the start of the 1980s. As these programs went through a certain evolution since 1988, their existence was more and more connected to the elaboration of a medium term and economic policy network. They have been established, regarding towards attenuate progressively the structural constraints and to reduce the financial insecurity, which the country faces. The objectives are the following:

Program with L'USAID

The Economic Reform Program with L'USAID intends on the one hand the creation of a favourable environment for growth, very important for the creation of employment in the private sector, and on the other hand reducing the burden of the public sector on the economy by improving its efficiency.

The Fiscal Reform intends to create favourable conditions to the rise of particularly the private sector:

Through the Budget Restructuring, which stands for ensuring a better management of public finances, because of:

Finally the computer support in regards to the equipment of the different directories of the Ministry of Finance and Trade with suitable computer material and to allow these directories access to a more modern computer management.

Program of "Restructuration du Marche Cerealier" (PRMC)

In addition to the reforms undertaken by the PRMC at the time of its first stage (1981/82 to 1985/86), it was decided to reduce the role of the government within the management of the national security stock and the intervention in the deficit zones of the state and the management of alimentary aid.

An operation of the organization of grain merchants is in the process of experimentation. Related to this, the decree 319/PG-RM needs to be mentioned, containing regulations on the grain campaign, which has to report to the village and private merchant associations, replacing the scale procedure by that one of confirmation and introduce the system of demand and supply to the buying and selling through the 'Office des Produits Agricoles du Mali' (OPAM).

Programs with the World Bank

The World Bank intervenes with the structural adjustment program as the sectorial program. Among the last ones, could be referred to the 'Programme d'Ajustement du Secteur Agricole' (PASA), 'Programme d'Ajustement du Secteur des Entreprises Publiques' (PASEP), 'Programme d'Ajustement du Secteur de l'Education' (PASED), 'Projet de Developpement Santiaire' (PDS).

Within the conception of PASA, a step-by-step action plan of restructuring operations for the rural development has been elaborated. This plan which submits reform measures for each ODR, contains two stages:

The 'Programme d'Ajustement Structurel des Entreprises Publiques' (PASEP) aims to reduce the burden of the public enterprises on the country's economy and the public finances, to improve the performance of the sector and to restart the private sector. It is also engaged with the liquidation of ineffective and non-strategic state enterprises and institutions and to adhere to the reinforcement of viable enterprises either for the co-management or the restructuring.

Socio-sanitary Reforms

They have been undertaken in order to extend the socio-sanitary protection of the country by the following activities:

e) role of external cooperation in state redesign

With the start of the structural adjustment program which constitutes of policy formulations of different sectors and often in the long term, external cooperation, be it bilateral or multilateral, plays a more and more significant and explicit role in the formulation of developmental policies in countries all over the world. Mali is no exception of this phenomenon.

On the contrary, the weakness of its economy and its almost exclusive dependence on external funds for the realization of its development emphasized by the role, which the external cooperation plays in the formulation of its policies. With this claim, the liberal tendency of the economy and society imposes itself more and more on Mali under hood of the external cooperation. It has allowed the dismantling of the public sector within the 'Programme d'Ajustement des Entreprises Publiques' (PASEP) and the 'Operations de Developpement' (ODR), the liberalization of the labour market by the abolishment of the state monopoly for job placement and of all the prizes which came with it, that one for Hydrocarbon and the attempts of recovery from the cost of health and education benefits.

This role of external cooperation in the reformulation of the policy is influenced by the financing organisms and the cooperation:

f) availability of external assistance/aid/grants

The external budgetary aid included the support with the debts which reached 11.2 milliards F CFA at the end of March 1991 and 26 milliards F CFA at the end of December 1991.

The Malian authorities achieved furthermore a rescheduling of one part of public debts by some creditors and benefited from an agreement concerning the debts with China and Russia. The government continued to lead a management policy of cautious debts and strove to achieve through this assessment possible concessionary contributions or loans. It does neither incur nor vouch for any new external non-concessionary loan with an expiration date of less than one year, or comprised between one and twelve years, with the exclusion of rescheduling or refinancing the debt, or credits at short term regularly connected to imports.

The entry of Mali to the Club of Paris has allowed obtaining 28 milliards for rescheduling. Mali has also benefited in 1988, 1989 and 1990 of debt annulation, worth 60.496 milliards F CFA. These remittances have been issued by France (48 milliards F CFA), Germany (10.352 milliards F CFA), US (1.7 milliards F CFA), Morocco (0.274 milliards F CFA) and Yugoslavia (0.17 milliards F CFA).

The 'Caisse Autonome d'Amortissement' (CAA) continues to focus and centralize all arrangements under the label external debt service for public or guaranteed by the state debts and also continues to reinforce its capacity to deliver regularly and within normal delays complete information necessary for a good management of public debts.

g) ethnicity

h) religious fundamentalism

i) anti-corruption programmes

In an economy of shortages and a society where the official remunerations are much lower than the cost of living, corruption becomes a way of life. But it is to a certain extent very difficult to understand that corruption confounds in certain points with the system of favours, which is so much part of the Malian society. However the regulation of the public service interdicts it formally. In fact Art. 10 of the order N? 77-71/CMLN of December 26, 1977 containing the general rules for civil servants, says that it is formally forbidden to civil servants to request or to receive directly or by a mediator, even outside of his office, but related to it, contributions, gratifications or any other advantages. It is also forbidden to perform a profitable activity and this interdiction is in some cases extended to the spouse.

But besides this more or less general corruption which derives its origin from misery, exists a form more reprehensible: the political corruption. Until a recent date, it ruled in the very high levels of the state and was one time or the other the objective of some specific measures or programs, fighting against corruption or fraud.

This is why since 1980s the "Bulletin for orientation and conduct of public life" came out, which listed the principal rules of integral guiding behaviour. The existence of a special court for the security of the state, which had a special jurisdiction to recognize crimes of embezzlement of public funds committed by state officials. Within this organization for the fight against corruption, a special commission for the fight against illicit enrichment, which is an anti-corruption investigation organism, was created.

To facilitate the fight against this form of corruption, the current constitution requests in Art. 37 + 57, before coming into office, the President of the Republic, the Premier Minister and the ministers have to submit a written declaration of their properties to the president of the Supreme Court. This declaration has to be up-dated annually. The constitution also forbids to them the purchase or the lease of something that belongs to the public, the participation on public or private markets for the administration or institutions relevant to the state, during their mandate.

Although despite the severe regulation (the death penalty is applicable for the embezzlement of 10 million F CFA and more) and the strong increase of control structures, corruption and fraud are far away from disappearing in the Malian society. And today another demand regularly formulated by the Malian youth is the reorganization of the administration, meaning the establishment of anti-corruption programs.

j) role of transnation corporations

k) role of international consulting firms

l) role of international political change

m) role of multi-laterals and bi-laterals

n) global communications networks

o) global, regional dichotomies and grouping

p) international data banks

q) international expert systems

r) international evaluation studies

s) other





Domains of activity

a) disaster management/crisis management

The changes, which occurred concerning the administration, could all be considered as results of crisis, either economic or socio-political. Formerly considered transitory and consequently resulting only in specific actions, these crises, particularly the economic ones, are more and more permanent, making structural changes necessary, alterations. The permanence of crisis suggests that the Malian management resumes in crisis management.

The history of the crisis principles or the summit of the crisis of this country allows observing the existence of a crisis management method, characterized by the duality of the resolution mechanism.

It is such that next to a formal regulation mechanism exists complementary or in competitively an informal mechanism.

The formal mechanism of crisis management: In this area Mali has very little innovated and during the crisis periods, there is among others an elaborate tendency towards centralizing the powers culminating in a controlling state structure. This tendency has been proven also towards the end of the first republic with the dissolution of the National Assembly, replaced by the Revolution Defense Committee, a decision committee almost on the border of legality, some loyal responsibles of the party associated around the Chief of State. The same happened in March 1991 with the transfer of responsibility and power of the very high levels of the country's government and B.E.C. to an almost informal group, the position of the operating command, a crisis structure which has assured the crisis management of the months January to March 1991.

This centralistic and formal approach of crisis management became restrained by the existence of an informal intermediary mechanism, although it officially didn't have any power nor means to play a considerable role in the crisis management of Mali. Survival of a tradition which grants a choice to negotiations and bargaining within the social life, these mechanism are often in competition with the formal structures which are often less effective than these. It might be an ad-hoc group, structures or organizations, which already existed, but with other objectives... and they might take different names like mediation committee, reconciliation commission, etc.

This informal crisis management practise is tempted to take the next step for at least two reasons:

In fact despite the instinctive reactions of social corps, which spontaneously generate a quantity of important initiatives, it has been observed that the managing and ruling capacity of the social committees weaken consciously at that moment where the demands of the individuals become strong; and this situation persists so long as no other means of social control and more appropriate decision mechanisms succeed to develop.

The negotiation between superior and subordinate has actually been changed, if the subordinate disposes any time sufficient alternatives. A chief, who depends on his subordinates to accomplish his assignment and who can't thrust them because they could leave or oppose him without any danger, doesn't have at all the same trumps as his predecessor who showed a certain monopoly. Indeed, he could find other means to intervene, managing this complexity of activities, which he is confronted with. But there is no chance to obtain actual satisfaction by contenting himself with the reaffirmation of traditional values. To succeed, on the contrary it is necessary to count on the actual game and to make use of it.

b) environmental/natural resource management

c) electoral administration

The election in Mali is conducted under the disposition of the order N 91-074/P-CTSP, holding the electoral regulations. Two key points can be examined from this order concerning the electoral administration:

General organization of elections

The organization of elections is characterized by the existence of various structures. The commission for the organization of elections exists for each electoral district. It is always presided by the chief of the district. His role is to put the material, human and financial means on disposition for the elections and to assure the coordination of the operations.

The commission for the revision of the electoral lists exists for each precinct and district and its role is to contribute for that very day the electoral lists. This commission also called administrative commission is presided by the mayor or the chief of the district and includes representatives of each party (to choose from the voters of the precinct or district).

The election office is composed of a president assisting neutral assessors who observe the regularity of the poll operations. The office includes also representatives of different political parties or candidates charged to guard their interest.

The commission for analyzing the polls after the elections have been over, counting the votes (and elaborate the verbal process) includes the chief of the district and the party representatives or listed candidates. In the procedure after the election the office becomes directly the poll commission;

The Minister of the Territorial Administration who assembles the electors except for in the case of presidential and legislative elections, where the electoral committee assembles by decree of the President of the Republic;

Only the constitutional procedure enables to declare the elections litigious.

The voting modes

Type of elections

Voting mode

Mandate term


Universal, direct, proportional (of the list) vote

5 years


Universal, direct vote, majority in 2 turns (of the list)

5 years


Universal, direct vote, majority in 2 turns (uninominal)

5 years

Community Councils

Universal, indirect vote

5 years


* The candidature is personal. The candidate presents itself no longer under the name of its party, which he legally does not need any more. In consequence, in case of discord, a single party can have several candidates, as it occurred in the last elections where two candidates presented themselves under the name of US-RDA.

d) legislative administration

According to the constitution, the legislative administration falls essentially under the competence of the parliament, composed of one chamber, called National Assembly. It is by law accessorily directed by the President (executive power) and by consultative mode guided by the High Council of the Communities and the Economic, Social and Cultural Council.

The principal change in the actual National Assembly compared to the previous one lies in its pluralistic composition. In fact the Assembly of the first republic was mono-colour (composed of representatives of a single political party) as though the actual Assembly is pluralistic (composed of representatives of seven political formations of 14 existing political parties) which relate to two articulate tendencies: (1) the endorsed parties of the republican pact PSPR (tendency to the presidential majority) who support the government action; and (2) the safeguarding front of the democratic FSP (opposition).

Another innovation in the legislative administration is the creation of the High Council of the Communities which has to be affected by a bill in order to make decisions, on propositions like the protection of the environment and the improvement of the quality of life of the citizens in their communities (regional and local development).

Meanwhile it has to be noted that although the deliberation of the Assembly is according to the law, in the preparation of laws which have parliamentary origins (draft) or governmental origins (bill), the administration, which is the executive power (government) plays a very important role there, for at least 3 reasons:

To these reasons adds also the fact that laws are restrictively determined by the constitution, which defines in Art. 70 that laws are limited by the following rules:

The legislation of the finances determines the resources and charges of the state.

The plan was adopted by the National Assembly. It directs the objectives for economic and social state activity.

e) judicial administration

It is performed by the Supreme Court, assisted by the High Court of Justice, the Constitutional Court and the different courts and tribunals.

The judicial administration is independent form the executive and legislative powers. The judicial power is defined by the constitution to be the guardian of freedom and to watch over it. It is charged to apply the laws of the republic in whatever field it is suitable. The judges are only complied to the authority of law in the performance of their function.

The President of the Republic is the warrant for the independence of the judicial power. He is assisted by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, which he presides.

The Superior Council of the Magistrature observes the career management of the judges and gives its opinion on all the questions concerning the independence of the magistrature. The Superior Council of the Magistrature rules as the Council of Discipline over the magistrature. On top of the judicial system is the Supreme Court which consists of: (1) a judicial section; (2) an administrative section; and (3) an accounting section.

The Supreme Court is presided by Magistrate of the Judicial Order, appointed by the President of the Republic according to the proposal of the Superior Council of the Magistrature. The President of the Supreme Court is assisted by a Vice-President appointed through by the same standards.

Besides this jurisdiction, there is also the Constitutional Court, which judges the constitutionality of laws and guarantees the fundamental rights of individuals and public liberties. It is the regulatory organization for the performance of the institutions and the activities of the Public Powers. The Constitutional Court judges mandatorily on:

The High Court of Justice is judging the President of the Republic and the Ministers with accusations against them, by the National Assembly for high treason or for explicit facts about crimes or offences committed within the performance of their functions, also their collaborators in case of a plot against the security of the state. The High Court of Justice is composed of members chosen by the National Assembly at each renewal.

 f) sectoral management, which sectors?

g) management of large scale social programmes

The principal social programs concerning women, children, farmers and young graduates. They offer consequently literacy, maternal and infantile health and the social reinsertion of unemployed in quest of labour.

The evaluation of the literacy activities in 1990 has revealed 100 000 participants, 3 777 women and 96 223 men and a rate of 18.8% (25.5% men, 11% women). The participation of women in the literacy program has always been weak (7% participants). In the rural environment 95% of the women are illiterate against 75% in the urban environment.

The activities have concentrated on the sensibilization and training with the following principles:


Regarding the aim of ending illiteracy from now on until the year 2000, considerable sacrifices still have to be made in order to allow 80% of the Malian population living in the countryside to have access to instruction and training, without them, there is no lasting hope for their self-development.

h) management of strategic macro-policies

i) economic reform, including privatization

j) population increases and consequences

k) resource mobilization

l) international competitiveness

m) commercialization

The liberalization policies concerning prize fixation and commercialization as the improvement of regulating structures, are essential elements for a government reform strategy. In consequence, all prize control mechanisms have been abolished starting January 1, 1991, except for mineral oil related products. A study on the system of prize fixation and taxation of mineral-oil products has been concluded in February 1991. Expecting the revision of the system, the Malian authorities have decided to tax on the level of custom tariffs at 81% of the registered earnings for the budget 1991 with the exception of mineral-oil products.

Additionally the government established March 31, 1991, a system of automatic adjustment of the internal prizes for mineral-oil products, because of the evolution of the international prizes. Concerning the system of commercialization, the government has abolished the import monopoly which was held by the 'Pharmacie Population du Mali' (PPM) towards the promotion of a larger distribution of pharmaceutical products through private pharmacies. Finally all restrictions concerning the commercialization of leather and skin products have been abolished. At the same time, the investment regulations have been revised in order to promote private investments. The new investment regulations procure to new enterprises some advantages from the viewpoint of internal taxation, but it excludes the entire exemption of custom tariff rights.

n) privatization

o) contracting out

p) corporatization

q) other


Government functions

a) regulating

Since 1992 the transformation process of the public administration has entered a new period which establishes itself through the enhancement of structural reforms aiming to incite the private sector and to reinforce the public resource management at the same time following financial policies which strive to reduce the absorption of resources by the government in order to raise the resources at the disposition of the private sector. The government exchanging sensibly its precedent role of economic supervisor and state providence with a role of simple regulator of economy and society, performed through: (1) improvement of the regulatory framework; and (2) improvement of its financial situation and resource management.

For this effect the budgetary deficit should not surpass 5.8% of the PIB including contributions and incomes of due payments ought to be eliminated, also the position of the government in relation to the bank system should be improved. The government has also raised its capacity to control operations of external trade through the reinforcement of customs administration and a contract on service benefits with the General Surveillance Institute (for the surveillance of imports).

This Institute is authorized in collaboration with the customs directory to establish cross-checking of the data on the customs declarations with the verification certificates, just as the verification of the relation between the amount of received payments by the treasury and the amount of liquidations.

The beginning of a process of political and administrative decentralization also limits the state to a simple role of regulating the work of decentralized communities compared to tutelage power.

b) facilitating

The government policy is to release the administrative procedures entirely in order to improve the production incitements, improve the allocation of resources and to promote the productivity profits. For this prize control system has been abolished since 1991 with the exception of mining products which are also released since 1992. The import monopoly on medication by the state pharmacy has been abolished, too.

In the field of international trade, at the beginning of 1991, the government simplified and rationalized the legal system of imports. This measurement reinforced by the abolition of export taxes and import licenses in 1990, aims to reinforce incitements and reduce distortions. The government has also reviewed the investment directives. The new directives take into consideration current tax reforms and also anticipate simplified approval procedures, just as modifications of exemptions and privileges according to enterprises in order to improve incitements. The government has established a unique system for the import - export trade operations with the National Directory of Economic Affairs and for investment operations with the National Industries Directory.

Additionally, the government has adopted new work regulations which introduce more flexibility to licensing and recruitment procedures and abolishes the recruitment monopoly of the 'Office National de la Main d'Oeuvre' (ONMOE) in order to improve the investment setting, the development of jobs and to reduce the rigidity on the labour market. The government has finally revised trade regulations in order to improve the applicable requirements to private enterprises, mining regulations with the intention to promote private investments in the mining sector, tax regulations by adopting taxes on added value, like a taxation mode for turnovers instead of taxes on businesses and services intending to allege the fiscal burden on enterprises with the admittance of deduction.

c) policy making

i) definition and formulation of policy

The government determines and conducts the country's policy and disposes for this effect the public administration. Its policy is elaborated towards general objectives, which the Chief of State defines either during his electoral campaign or in his bulletins to the nation.

Until the 1990s, the policy formulation developed towards two fundamental goals: security and improvement of revenues plus the building of an independent economy, all this leading to the satisfaction of the essential needs of the entire population, concerning especially alimentation, housing, water, education, training and health issues.

But since the adjustment programs, if the essential objective continues being development, the state acknowledged that the major role to achieve it suits to the private sector and it also suits it to contribute to improvement in general. Under these circumstances, the formulation and definition of policies emerged through the formulation of new missions for the public sector in some key areas of socio-economic development:

In the health field: With priority to elementary health care and progressive transfer of medical structures towards decentralized communities. In the field of medicine, the state limits itself to the management of strategic stocks and the support of imports of essential medicine by private pharmacists.

In the education field: The state rephrases its policy in the sense of a reorientation of efforts towards basic education, especially towards the development of basic infrastructure and decentralization of elementary education. In order to promote the charge taking of these recurrent costs by the recipients, they are connected with support measures in favour of the private sector and other forms of education until they diminish (Medersa or education Franco-Arab).

In the economic field: The reformulation of the policy emerged here through some legislative modifications from which we are citing some examples that seem to be very significant:

In the agricultural field: Assisting on the transfer of the stabilization of the cotton price - until then one of the essential roles of the state - to the village associations; transferring not dissolved exploitation and commercialization aspects and 'operations de developpement rurales' (ODR) to the committed agricultural cultivators or farmers.

ii) steering capacity/mechanisms

The steering capacity of the organization or the management of change concerning some achieved results in certain sensible and priority sectors can be perceived like employment, health and education fields.

In the health field, the reforms have been implemented by now through the spectacular development of the private initiative within the field of medicine and pharmacy together with the establishment of many private dispensaries and clinics which have contributed to secure relatively the availability of medicine and to improve the quality of health care. Concerning the drinking water, the goals for satisfying the needs of the rural population, by the use of underground water resources have been achieved at a rate of 46% by the end of December 1991. Concerning urban water works the dessert rates of the urban centres disposed a water exploitation of 35%.

In the field of education and literacy, the following actions have been accomplished:

Concerning literacy, a rate of 18.5% has been achieved, 25.5% men and 11% women.

In the employment field: Contrary to precedent areas, in this field the disengagement of the state didn't really lead to any improvement. In fact since 1987, the number of employees in the industrial sector decreased as the reduction of the salaries, also the well-being of public enterprises (because of liquidation, privatization) as private enterprises (victims of fraud and disloyal competition).

The PME/PMI created after the restructuring didn't succeed to considerably improve employment offers, only to the extent of small units whose staff doesn't exceed ten persons in average. In 1989 industrial employment created by these enterprises was estimated to 12536, being only 0.5% of the active population of the same year. This employment situation actually only worsened with the effected or planned reductions of civil service staff.

iii) central guidance/cluster or innovative mechanisms

If the adjustments should have started in 1982, it was only at the beginning of 1987/ 1988 that the real changes had been perceptible in the role of the civil service.

The governmental function concerning this evolution concentrated continuously furthermore on regal functions of the state (justice, defence, security, etc.) in terms of direct execution. Concerning other development functions actually performed by the state, the government limited itself to regulatory aspects and disengaged itself from the execution. This process has already started with the wave of privatization that has cut down the range of the para-public sector for more than one third since 1990.

 But the principal innovative approach in governmental functions during this time in Mali is the decentralization process whose objective is to supply the territorial communities with real decision and management power confronting and adjacent to the state. Concerning this decentralization, the central government emerges alleged of many of its actual functions to the benefit of three categories of "local governments" who existed respectively the level of regions, districts and communities.

d) implementation

The implementation of governmental functions concerns essentially governmental agencies, which are created for this effect. Contrary to Anglo-Saxon systems, where private organizations (NGOs, enterprises) exist through which the state can perform its policy, the French submissive, judicial system does not acknowledge these osmosis and cooperation processes between private and public. The few cases of governmental function implementation through private organizations in Mali are: (1) the public institutions for professional precision ('caractere professionel') who perform missions of public power for the state in respect to their members; and (2) the concessionary enterprises.

But in spite of this particular judicial environment, the public administration system in Mali underwent fundamental changes since the 1980s. An increasing number of public services have been taken over by the private sector. This phenomenon implying at one time disengagement, at another time liberalization or deregulation demonstrates two essential consequences:

i) through private sector, NGOs, QUANGOs, etc.

The restrictions and borders of state operation in the expense plan negotiated within the structural adjustment programs are now such, so that in order to accomplish government programmes without reaching the limitations of the state role inherent to the adjustments, is to use available resources, essentially gained within loan agreements or subsidies on public markets. This practise which consists of mobilizing the private to the service of public policy is largely distributed and granted to the government.

Additionally to this form of contract, the government mobilizes the private sector to the service of public policy by means of subsidies (different fiscal exemptions) and regulations (authorizations to perform in sectors formerly reserved only for the government). This form of public policy set up is relatively new in Mali (It is dated back to the 1980s.) and until today the budgetary directories of the government don't allow to make a clear vision of its range.

ii) coordination

The intervention of the actors from the private sector in the set up of governmental policies changes furthermore the physiognomy of the public administration. Actually, the fact that it no longer insures the services which it offers and by limiting itself to finance and supervise co-contractors and subcontractors entitled with the duty of production doesn't work without difficulties: it poses control, coordination and evaluation difficulties.

At the core of all the bureaucratic control and coordination, there is the superiority of hierarchy which builds up the bureaucratic ideal. Now the interference of private elements with the establishment of public policies inflicts extremely complex, substantial hierarchical problems. In fact at the moment an increasing number of goods and public services have been acquired by "subcontractors" the chains of services overflow the hierarchy and escape through ex-ante mechanisms of control and coordination at the moment of conception and formulation of options. But since the orders have been passed all the coordination power perishes from the government at the moment of action, the interferers claiming their precision and specialization which justifies their independence of action. For the government remains no more than post-ante evaluation power of the results.

e) evaluation

Generally issued from the central administration, the question on evaluation functions remains on the agenda. In fact, how the central administration can act in such a manner that its subordinates are flexible enough to adapt to the governmental policy with the demands of the tasks and appreciate the results within the principles without being tempted to adopt the stand-point of the subcontractor and not sacrificing their priority for government policies?

The problem becomes quasi-unsolvable, when saying that subcontractors, since they act as private enterprises or NGOs, are not part of the bureaucracy and have therefore very different values and objectives. It's within this evaluation concern on behalf of the NGOs, that in 1979 the government created an evaluation commission for activities of non-governmental organizations. (decree N 79-168 of June 21, 1979); this demonstrates an implicit acknowledgment that the performance of governmental functions through the private sector and NGOs restrains or at least makes the classical bureaucratic coordination and control difficult.

f) planning

As the role of the government, so can the planning process be understood on two levels: (1) global planning considered as a state function and (2) planning of governmental activities.

The global (economic and social) planning:

From this perspective, who are the responsible administrators of the central formation negotiating the elaboration and execution of the plan/strategy? If the department authorized with the planning is responsible to the first administrator/ head, other members are also appealed to negotiate. This is the case:

Despite the reappearance of planning groups, the new tendencies of the public administration concerning the planning process are characterized by the loss of the planning swiftness as entitled development instrument. In fact within a liberal context, the plan/ strategy becomes nothing more than an indication towards a private sector whose objectives are not necessarily those of the state.

The planning of governmental activities:

The planning process of governmental activities are regarded from the micro-governmental perspective. This planning process is perceived in six-month terms and by the entire ministerial departments through central services, which elaborate activity programs. These program proposals are centralized at the general secretariat of the government on the account of the 'primatura', under the title of the program proposals for governmental work. The plan is submitted to a Special Ministerial Council (Governmental Seminary) for judgment. The final resulting document is the program of governmental work whose management is ensured by the general secretariat of the government.

In reality this governmental action plan is much more an activity catalogue than a valid plan/ strategy since it has neither consistency nor an evaluation of necessary means. Even a superficial analysis of the program of governmental work allows noticing the inconsistencies, containing contradictory activities that eliminate themselves mutually and at the same time double functions. The weak quality of this document makes all the temporary evaluation of governmental activity hypothetical. The first evaluation becoming public at the second semester 1992 assigned scores to the ministerial departments which ranged from 0.5 to 15/20.

g) reliance on contractors and sub-contractors

Here the question of information arises. There is neither independence nor control without good information. The process of filtrating information causes uncountable problems in the administrative mechanism.

In fact, in order to trickle down the hierarchic layers, the information has to be concentrated and certain, important data sometimes gets lost on its way. The good news have priority compared to the bad ones; and the goal is to hinder the totally uncomfortable information, to arrive on the top because they could have ill-fated consequences or sanctions for the civil servant at the subordinate level.

If this is the situation inside the bureaucracy, it is even more complex with contractors and subcontractors, who are not part of the bureaucratic organization but have as much reason and possibilities to not provide correct information and to hide thus their eventual weakness. Even if the administration sends its controllers from time to time out in the fields, even if it submits some articles to provide control, its controls stay punctual and the administration is frequently obliged to trust the reports set up by the contractors themselves - always inclined to interpret the data to their advantage.

Lack of vital information, even if the administration wishes to change the contractor, it doesn't have grounds (thus real power to do it). Since there is a dependence vis-à-vis the contractors and co-contractors. This dependence becomes much stronger since competition is limited. In fact concerning important benefits only those can be approved as appraised enterprises that are on the "short list" financed by the structural adjustment programs.

The dependency becomes more discomforting because not only the collecting one is private, but the one authorized with his surveillance and control is also private, that's where the serious risks of collusion of co-contractors to the loss of the administration arise.

h) reliance on consultants

i) coordination (in what arenas, for what sectoral issues)

The coordination means of governmental activities are determined by special guidelines of governmental work procedures (Actually guidelines N 001 of July 31, 1984).

The general secretariat of the government is the essential component and principally unique within the inter-ministerial coordination. For this effect it has been empowered with what could be called a quadruple monopoly:

There are many and various inter-ministerial gatherings in Mali. The main ones are: (1) Council of Ministers; (2) Permanent Interministerial Council; (3) Occasional Interministerial Council; (4) Permanent Interministerial Commission; (5) Coordination Committee of Cabinet Directors; and (5) Occasional Interministerial Gatherings.

Besides these means, the Chief of State can sometimes use other ones to guide governmental action:

The complex and delicate questions have been subject to studies which can be considered to a certain extent as a method of inter-ministerial coordination. These studies are the achievement of either administrative agencies (study commissions), or of specialized exterior agencies (study organizations or objectives often mediating within the gathering of technical cooperation).

In the whole, the institution and practise of the coordination of governmental functions in Mali reveals a very strong concentration of the administrative system. It exists a tendency of hypertrophy at the top (formerly only the presidency, but since 1991 the presidency and especially the 'primatura'), which could be defined as "super ministry". The ministers in Mali resemble a lot like the leadership of the colonial time, in regards to which the coordination authorities behave themselves more as a superior hierarchy than as acknowledged coordinators of various competencies. Two major inconveniences: the slowness and the heaviness of the procedures; the loss of sense of responsibility (impulsion, arbitration and decisions have always been considered by the presidency or the 'primatura').

j) government relations with the private sector

The relations between the government and the private sector have developed in three stages:

During the First Republic: During the First Republic, starting with the independence until 1968, these relations can be characterized by a reciprocal suspicion and an outspoken will of the governing ones to reduce in order to abolish all forms of a private sector. This has ideological foundation. In fact, the government intended the construction of a scientific socialism which culminated in the economic field being formed by state institutions and enterprises. This attained development model let only very little space for the emergence of a private sector.

During the Second Republic: At the beginning of 1968, the change of the government imposes an ideological transformation on the economic system. The legitimacy and the role of the private sector became more and more acknowledged in the official discussion, reinforced by the catastrophic situation of the public enterprises and the deception they have generated. Meanwhile the regulatory environment didn't undergo changes and no perceptible emergence of the private sector was really exhibited. In such an environment characterized by not very appropriate regulations, only those entrepreneurs succeeded, who benefited from protection which allowed them to take some distance in regards to the effected legal dispositions. This is the era, where the highest leader of the state undertakes directly activities as private entrepreneurs. This period culminates with purchase attempts by these same responsible ones, or their relatives, or protégés of the 'Societes et Entreprises d'Etat' who had to be privatized within the structural adjustment at the beginning of 1985.

During the Third Republic: The third period starts at the beginning of 1991 and is characterized by a distinctive change in the relations between the governors and the private entrepreneurs which for the first time can be entirely considered as social partners and no longer as enemies. This emancipation starts with general business and industrial requirements that impose a set of measurements directed to allow a reliance of this sector.

Concerning the private sector, the state itself, the state enterprises and institutions beyond the rules of common rights which guide their performance, their relations with the state are defined generally within the order 91-14 of May 15, 1992 and particularly within contracts which connect each public enterprise with the state. Assumed for a period of 3 years, the contract defines the particular obligation of each co-contractor and determines the assigned objectives of the enterprise and evaluation indicators for their level of accomplishment.

k) staff and line functions

The expansion of the enacting of public policies towards the private sector (enterprises and NGOs) with the disengagement of the state is only one aspect which already starts to show consequences for the personnel and line functions. In fact the public administration manages less and less services directly, the number of staff and line functions are diminishing compared to the entire number of civil servants. The services from which the state has disengaged or conceives to disengage by regarding them as distinct judicial personas with administrative and financial autonomy or by privatizing them straightforward or by abolishing those who in proportion to the entire staff use most of the subordinate personnel. This is the case with

l) other


Implementation of roles and role shifts

Methods or vehicles for implementing role shifts

a) boundary management/sovereignty management

The management of these elements has to be analyzed from the perspective of constitutional dispositions. In fact the constitution declared in its preamble: the sovereign people of Mali engage solemnly by defending the republican structure of the state, the cultural and linguistic diversity of the national community, maintaining and consolidating the national unity, reaffirming its allegiance to an African union, for the promotion of peace, regional and international cooperation, to the peaceful regulation of differences between the states in regards to the sovereignty of people.

In these articles 25, 26 and 29 it's also declared that: Mali is an independent, sovereign, indivisible, democratic, laic and social Republic, whose principle is "government of people, by people and for people".

The national sovereignty appears to the people absolute, which is performed by its representatives or by the means of referendum; no fraction of people nor any individual can attribute its performance to themselves.

The President of the Republic is the Chief of State. He embodies the national unity, is the guarantor for national independence, integrity of the territory and respect international treaties and agreements.

The Constitution concerning the sovereignty declares finally in its article 117 that Mali can assume with all African states association or community agreements, including the partial or total abdication of sovereignty in regards to the African union.

Concerning its constitutional dispositions the sovereignty is essentially directed by the National Assembly representing the people but under the responsibility of the Chief of State who is its guarantor.

The responsibility for the control of the borders is incumbent on the President of the Republic as guarantor of territorial integrity of the country. He insures it by means of the armed forces whose supreme chief he is in respect to article 44 of the Constitution. He is assisted by the Superior Council and the Committee of National Defense, thus he is the president.

But beyond its constitutional dispositions, which guide the supervision of the sovereignty and the borders, those have to be acknowledged as a conditional reality, which since 1990 constitutes the new fundamental idea: this is what is called the "problem of the north" which has blew up two years ago. The territorial integrity has been complied with a rough probe by the rebellion which erupted in the north. A political solution which was found by Malian authorities first within the agreement of Tamarassett (signed between the Malian government and the unified movement of l'Azawad [a northern part of Mali]) signed under the old government then replaced because challenged by the National Pact which acknowledged to N 6, 7 and 8 regions, a specification and a large autonomy of management and administration.

Besides the northern problem, the control of the Malian borders distinguishes between two categories of borders. The borders which could be called peaceful and which are those with the Ivory Coast, Senegal, Guinea and which are under no tension or particular attention and the borders which could be merely called sensitive, which are those with Burkina Faso, Mauritania, the Niger and Algeria. They are under special attention and efforts of delimitation because of troubles that actually never absolutely stopped in the zones or the previous borderers have been left with bad memories (border with Brukina).

b) inter-sovereignty capabilities

c) linkages with NGOs, cooperatives, business etc.

d) green management

The fight against the drought and the desertification is considered as an integral part of the research strategy of self-sufficiency and elementary security. The foundation of this battle was established by the national campaign against desertification (PNLCD) conceived in 1985, further developed in 1987 and 1989.

The actions in progress within the PNLCD

The PNLCD is a general program composed of 8 superior programs, themselves divides into 40 projects. The principal action undertaken within these programs are indicated below:

It is such as the CMDT develops public sensibilization actions for anti-erosive arrangements, monitoring of rational resources, pastures and the integration of stockbreeding into agriculture in the area South-Mali.

The fuel economy: The program of economizing energy has been supported by many partners with the development of discounts for improved furnace diffusion has been effected in Bamako, where 71% of the household use would as principal energizer and at least one improved furnace plus 2/3 maintain a portable, metallic furnace (83% at Segou, 75% at Koutiala, 89% at Mopti, 61% at Gao).

As far as the promotion and popularization of other alternative energy sources is concerned, they have been brought up by: (1) studying domestic energy; (2) the alleviation of certain taxes on gas, illuminating petroleum, gas equipment; and (3) the establishment of a regional promotion program for the use of butane-gas (CEE-CILSS).

 Other campaign actions against the desertification

These actions have been imposed on: (1) the conservation of water and ground (biological protection for the defence of aggro-sylva-pasture plantations); (2) the battle against bush fires; and (3) the protection of the forest and the environment.

Dealing particularly with the battle against bush fires, a recrudescence of these were discovered in 1990, despite the total interdiction of bush fires, the establishment of anti-fire brigades, local committees for the protection of the environment and the adoption of a fire law. As far as reforestation is concerned, it has increased its volume under the application of industrial reforestation, demonstration and experimentation with village and urban plantations. These efforts have made possible the accomplishment of 10.683 ha.

e) alternative channels for service delivery

f) promotion and facilitation of private sector development

g) other


Major issues raised in the implementation of role shifts

a) governmental, public sector society-wise sector

b) administrative reform vs. state reform

c) isolated Government vs. "partnership" Government

d) management of change methods

e) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of changing role/scope of government. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change





Shifts in the overall composition of the Governance structures

a) shifts in unitary/federal/composite formats

b) balance between rural development and urban management

c) number and portfolios of ministries etc.

d) number semi-independent boards/commissions or agencies

e) decentralization


Note: within the concept of decentralization, there are various types of tendencies:

a) devolution

b) dispersion

c) deconcentration

d) de-bureaucratization

e) strengthening municipal/local autonomy

f) other


Also, there are various functions which can be decentralized:

a) co-production of service delivery; receiving system

b) resource sharing

c) responsibility sharing; co-responsibility

d) authority sharing

e) decision-making sharing or governance sharing

f) information technology

g) personnel management

h) financial management

i) planning and goal-setting

j) other


There are also various specific areas of decentralization changes:

a) mode of implementation

b) goals/reasons

c) impetus

d) context in which takes place

e) level of government involved

f) consequences/results/outcomes/evaluation

g) professional modes of access

h) cooperative schemes

i) self-governing/self-regulating mechanisms

j) strengthening nodes: NGOs, etc.

k) other


In the public finance area, transformational changes or changes with transformational impact

a) budget; expenditure control

b) receipts/taxation

c) public administration markets

d) other


Criteria used to determine the content of shifts

a) productivity improvement

b) service accountability

c) ethics

d) budget reduction

e) government-wide v. targeted to a few agencies

f) degree of comprehensiveness/depth

g) other


Processes used to determine the content of shifts

a) high level blue-ribbon committee

b) staff analysis

c) multi-level dialogue within Government

d) policy dialogue with NGOs, business sector etc.

e) society-wide dialogue with individual participation

f) strategic planning/management/corporate planning

g) think tank-mechanisms to predict futures

h) mechanisms for initiation and co-ordination of reforms

i) other


Processes and methods used to implement shifts

a) administrative learning

b) goals, objectives, scope, coverage

c) organizational analysis, strategy,

d) evaluation, assessment

e) training institutions/ training policy

f) managing decline and cutback

g) total quality management (TQM); continuous improvement

h) accountability management (anti-corruption policies, macro-measures to improve monitoring & control)

i) internal/external communications

j) increased flexibility

k) increased standardization

l) monitoring of initiatives introduced throughout the government

m) team management

n) legislative compulsion

o) other


Specific methods have been used to reduce resistance to change

a) training

b) meetings

c) relationship to on-going activities

d) redundancies

e) early retirements

f) other


Consequences for the civil service during these shifts

a) recruitment/promotion/transfer/mobility

b) accountability and discipline

c) pay/remuneration policy, pension/retirement

d) decentralization

e) boundaries with other agencies

f) personnel involved: political policy types vs. directors of operations

g) coordination issues

h) loss of sectoral skills

i) reliance on external consultants

j) policy fragmentation

k) other


Methods used to measure impact of reform and development programmes

a) demonstrable behavioural outcomes

b) more directed management assessment, development and training

c) results-oriented management

d) performance-based appraisal

e) retro-fitting skills capacity

f) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change






Programmes undertaken in reform of human resources management systems/practices

a) career, incentives, performance, probation, promotion, management

b) recruitment/selection/development

c) training policy

d) training curriculum changes and needs analysis

e) retrenchment/redeployment measures

f) transfer/mobility

g) discipline/ethics/codes of conduct

h) merit/seniority/representational criteria

i) civil service pay and benefits; conditions of work

j) employee/union relations

k) retirement, pensions

l) statistics and planning; number of posts; structural policy

m) job descriptions/classification systems

n) other


Shifts attempted in reform of financial administration

a) budgetary planning

b) accrual accounting

c) programme budgeting

d) revenue mobilization and management

e) budgetary and financial management control

f) zero-based/performance budgeting etc

g) compensation adjustments

h) accountability

i) value for money

j) systems of accounts

k) other


Improvements attempted in information management

a) increasing access (secrecy)

b) adopting new technology

c) policies on information technology

d) coordination of development and adoption of new information technology

e) training for information technology

f) office automation

g) decision-support-systems

h) freedom of information/transparency

i) new administrative laws

j) expert systems/artificial intelligence/neural systems

k) data banks

l) other



Productivity management and improvement

Overall productivity programmes/projects undertaken

a) what specific measures or methodologies

b) by what specific organizations or sectors

c) development of standards

d) other


Methods used to identify and install productivity improvement projects

a) research studies for productivity improvement

b) planning, monitoring, evaluation, supervision

c) implementation studies

d) systematic managerial assessment

e) training programmes in productivity

f) managerial autonomy of agencies/enterprises

g) inspection systems

h) performance management

i) leadership training; vision; values

j) cost-benefit methodologies

k) other


Outputs aimed at or perceived in the productivity improvement programmes/projects, along with demonstrable improvements achieved so far or projected

a) service delivery

b) relationship between government/public

c) governance effectiveness

d) rule-making

e) public management transfer

f) crisis management

g) management of technology transfer

h) rationalizing administrative procedures

i) cross subsidization

j) steering capabilities

k) other


Units in government conduct research and analysis and how they interact with administrative units, especially the services they offer administrative units

a) planning units

b) finance units

c) management consultancy units

d) personnel units

e) policy analysis units

f) cabinet level/ministerial level units

g) Prime minister's/President's office

h) Commissions or Boards

i) R&D centres

j) administrative reform unit

k) academies/institutes

l) economic units

m) accounting units

n) coordination units

o) representative bodies

p) think tanks

q) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change