Factors in the developmental context, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) transnationalization of management change

The major change that has occurred over the past ten years has been the transnationalization of the management of the Nigerian economy. Since it became apparent in 1981/2 that the Nigerian economy was in serious crises due to a sharp fall in petroleum revenues, the country had to appeal to international financial institutions -- in particular, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank for assistance. These institutions have in turn put pressure on Nigeria to adopt their "structural adjustment programme" (SAP) of the economy as a conditionality for financial assistance. The governments of Shagari (1979 - 1983) and that of Buhari (1984 - 1985) were able to resist the pressures but that of the present incumbent, General Babangida succumbed in 1986. Since then , the directives from these agencies have played a major role in the management of the economy.

b) imperative to increase gender/women sensitivity

There has been a growing sensitivity to gender issues in the past ten years. The women's lobby under the leadership of two NGOs, the radical "Women in Nigeria" (WIN) and the conservative National Council for Women's Societies (NCWS) have succeeded in focusing attention on the neglect of women in the development process. The result has been an increased effort by government to respond positively to these demands. This movement has been helped by the prominent role played by the wife of President Babangida to further sensitize government and society to the neglect of women and the necessity of integrating them in the development process.

c) groups in society with needs and demands

d) private sector needs and demands

The growing organized private business sector composed of the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria, the Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the Nigerian Employers Consultative Assembly, the Institute of Chartered Bankers and the National Association of Small Scale Industry has also been able to mobilize itself as a pressure group capable of making inputs into the decision making process. A forum has been established known as "Nigeria Incorporated" composed of the organized private sector, government and labor which meets periodically to review economic and social policy.

e) local government needs and demands

The creation of a large number of local government units and the increase in the financial subventions they receive from the Federal Government has created a situation in which this "third tier of government" can finally play an enhanced role in society.

f) mass migration and its consequences

Nigeria has not experienced mass migration from surrounding countries.

g) environmental concerns

Environmental concerns are beginning to take an important place in the thinking of government after a long period of lack of concern. There have been three sources that have provoked the current change. The 1972/3 Sahelian draught that sensitized society to the precarious ecology of the North, the visible destructive of mining on the environment such as tin mining on the Jos Plateau and oil drilling in the Niger Delta; and finally, reports since 1988 of the dumping of Western toxic and radioactive waste in the country.

h) economic decline or need for economic growth

i) development of political pluralism

Nigeria has been undergoing a long process of transition to civil and democratic rule (1986-1993) and the problems connected with military dictatorship and the lack of political pluralism has been at the centre of governmental action (and inaction) and societal concerns.

j) other

In Nigeria as in most other countries, the scope of government has gone beyond the level of maintenance of law and order with the emergence of developmental goals. Since the mid 1950s, the various Nigerian governments have emphasized the necessity for promoting economic development and actively advocated for significant role as the promoters of the said development. The instrument that has been used is that of development planning. The federal nature of the Nigerian State has also placed on the forefront the necessity for even development. The government has therefore seen its role as that of an active arbiter committed to ensuring the even spread of development projects and infrastructure in the country. The first national development plan was carried out under British tutelage while the Nigerian State and indigenous experts have been able to take control of subsequent ones.


Critical policy areas, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) education

b) social security

c) health

The main effects of the structural adjustment programme of the economy has been to orient government interest away from social services such as health, education, housing and other public welfare issues. The government has been under severe pressure from its international financial sponsors to decrease its expenditure and it has found social services the easiest sector to withdraw from. The Nigerian State has no social security system for its citizens. Over the past ten years, government has severely cut its expenditure on health and education and the country now has one of the lowest levels of public investment in the health and educational sectors in the world. With the rapid and substantial withdrawal of government from these domains, private profit seeking entrepreneurs have entered the field en masse with the consequent escalation of prices and a significant fall in the quality of services.

d) environment

The environment has become a priority area and an agency, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, has been established to monitor its uses and abuses and prepare policies that will protect it.

e) immigration

f) criminal justice

g) agriculture

h) industrial

Government commitment to support and participate actively in agriculture and industry has also declined and a very active programme of the privatization of public companies and corporations is in progress. This withdrawal of government is in conformity with the principles of SAP which seek to limit State involvement in economic activity.

i) public works

j) urban decay/infrastructure

k) micro economic reform

l) macro economic management

In general, there is a new concept of macro-economic management in which the role of government is reduced to the regulation of market forces and private entrepreneurs are expected to play the leading role in the economy.

m) other

National context

a) population size and age dynamics

Nigeria is Africa's most populated country and the last census in the country held in 1991 put the population at nearly 89 million. The birth rate of the country is very high. The population pyramid is such that a substantial proportion of the population is young.

b) economics dynamics

c) social dynamics, including migration/refugee movement

There is very little international migration into Nigeria. There is however substantial internal migration, especially of the seasonal type. There is also substantial rural-urban migration and it is estimated that over 50% of the country's population lives in towns. The urban centres have problems of coping with this influx because of sufficient therefore been developing with increasing poverty.

d) poverty alleviation, massive unemployment

e) labor relations issues

Labour relations are governed by arbitration tribunals, the Industrial Arbitration Panel (IAP) and its appellate body, the National Industrial Court (NIC) who mediate between employers, the Ministry of Labour and employees.

f) increasing role of judiciary

The judiciary occupies an important place in Nigerian society with the increase in litigation and conflicts in the country. Nigeria has one of the largest population of lawyers in Africa.

g) increasing impact of media and media relations

The mass media are also extensive and play an important role. Many of them, pecially in the press, are private and fairly independent of government control. The State however owns and controls the totality of the electronic media and some newspapers. The Government has accepted to license some private electronic media but none has so far been allowed to start broadcasting.

h) decreasing resources available to government

i) relations of public service with politicians/ministers

The relations between the public service and ministers are very tense and conflictual at the present moment as we shall see in the latter part of this text.

j) growing differentiation and interaction of various spheres in society

k) other


International context

a) size, availability, etc of foreign investment

The Nigerian economy, which is of the rentier type and dependent on petroleum export, has not been able to attract much foreign investment in the past decade.

b) amount and types of technology transfer-in

c) nature of markets for national products

Due to its very large population and petroleum rent, Nigeria has a very large market for national products as well as imported ones. The sizable population in urban areas requires different types of goods and services that go beyond the needs of a subsistence economy.

d) structural adjustment policies and programmes

The structural adjustment programme implies a considerable external input in economic policy but the redesign of the State that is currently going on is based largely on local expertise.

e) role of external cooperation in state redesign

f) availability of external assistance/aid/grants

g) ethnicity

h) religious fundamentalism

i) anti-corruption programmes

j) role of transnation corporations

k) role of international consulting firms

l) role of international political change

m) role of multi-laterals and bi-laterals

n) global communications networks

As is the case with other Third World countries, the availability of Western controlled global communications network to the citizenry creates a steady source of information and propaganda that influence thought and activity in the country.

o) global, regional dichotomies and grouping

The rising wave of pro-democracy movements and propaganda in other parts of the world has for example helped encourage and dynamise human rights and democracy movements internally. Similarly, the religious fundamentalist wave in other countries has helped to legitimise and push forward the Nigerian variant.

p) international data banks

q) international expert systems

r) international evaluation studies

s) other



Domains of activity

a) disaster management/crisis management

To be able to react swiftly and effectively in disaster management, the government has established a National Emergency Relief Agency as well as a specific fund to respond to problems as they arise.

b) environmental/natural resource management

The government set up the Federal Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 for environmental management. It drew up a national policy on the environment in 1989 and has established guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control.

c) electoral administration

The National Electoral Commission was established in 1987 to organize, conduct and supervise elections in the country. It is also to provide guidelines, rules and regulations for the emergence, recognition and registration of the two political parties recognized by the 1989 Constitution.

d) legislative administration

The structure for legislative administration has not been completely operational because the military government is yet to keep its promise of handing over power to a democratically elected government. Although a National Assembly has been elected and a Clerk Designate appointed, the law making functions of the House will have to await the handover of power.

e) judicial administration

The judiciary is in charge of the administration of justice, adjudication and the interpretation of laws. The Judiciary operates a graduated court system in both the Federal and State levels. The system of judicial administration suffers from the archaism of its procedure which is extremely slow because judges still have to laboriously write down all proceedings by hand and no innovations have been proposed to speed up the judicial process. There are Federal and State Judicial Services Commissions chaired by the Chief Justice and having eight members among whom are the President of the Court of Appeal and the Attorney General. They have powers of appointment, dismissal and discipline over the registrars who run the judicial administration and they advise on the appointment of judges. The ministry of justice headed by the attorney general is an arm of the executive.

f) sectoral management, which sectors?

g) management of large scale social programmes

h) management of strategic macro-policies

i) economic reform, including privatization

The management of economic reform and in particular the privatization programme is in the hands of the Technical Committee on Privatization and Commercialization which was established in 1988. It has responsibilities for re-structuring and rationalizing the public sector in order to lesson the dominance of unproductive investments in the sector. It is also to re-orient State enterprises for privatization and commercialization and initiate the process of gradual cession to the private sector of some public sector enterprises. A substantial part of public investment in the banking sector and industry has already been privatized.

j) population increases and consequences

A National Population Commission has been established to undertake periodical enumeration of population by sample surveys or census and to establish and maintain machinery for continuous and registration of births and deaths. In the past, there has been no systematic registration of births and deaths in the country. The information that will be accumulated henceforth will enable the monitoring of population changes and improve the capacity for planning.

k) resource mobilization

There is a Resource Mobilisation Allocation and Fiscal Commission established in 1988 and charged with monitoring the accruals to and disbursement of revenue from the Federation Account and reviewing the revenue allocation formula of the Federation.

l) international competitiveness

m) commercialization

n) privatization

o) contracting out

p) corporatisation

q) other

Government functions

There has been a major transformation in the structure of governmental functions over the past ten years. On the one hand, there is a concentration of government functions -- regulating, policy making, policy implementation and evaluation and planning under one umbrella, the Presidency. On the other hand, there is a multiplication of extra-ministerial agencies, commissions, boards, committees, etc. charged with various governmental functions. There is thus a tendency towards marginalisation of ministries. The military have ruled Nigeria for 24 out of the 33 years the country has lived through since independence. The military have also been in power for the ten years period, 1983-1993, covered by this research. The military tradition has had a profound impact on the organization of government functions. Policy making, policy implementation and regulation functions are supervised by the same powerful body, the name of which changes from time to time -- Supreme Military Council, Armed Forces Ruling Council and now, the National Defense and Security Council. The Head of State as military and political leader, tends to accumulate vast powers and over time, the military President in Nigeria has become a complete dictator who changes laws and policies without reference to any constituted body. The result has been a rapid growth in the functions and powers of the Presidency.

a) regulating

b) facilitating

c) policy making:

i) definition and formulation of policy

ii) steering capacity/mechanisms

iii) central guidance/cluster or innovative mechanisms

d) implementation

The implementation of policies is delegated to a multiplicity of technical committees controlled by the Presidency. Some of them have taken over the major portfolios of ministries. The major ones -- the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure, the National Directorate of Employment, the National Agricultural Land Development Authority and the Mass Mobilization for Social and Economic Recovery took over most of the functions of the ministries of works, agriculture, industry and information. In the beginning of 1993, these bodies were handed back to their "parent" ministries but these ministries already had departments to cover these functions and the said bodies were created precisely because government had lost confidence in its own ministries. The present situation is therefore characterized by a duplication of executive organs.

i) through private sector, NGOs, QUANGOs, etc.

There is very little effort to give NGOs and QUANGOs a prominent role in policy implementation.

ii) coordination

e) evaluation

The evaluation of policy implementation is also done by ad hoc committees established by the Presidency.

f) planning

The National Planning Commission is also under the Presidency.

g) reliance on contractors and sub-contractors

h) reliance on consultants

A lot of governmental activity -- construction, supplies, evaluation, feasibility studies etc., is carried out by contractors and consultants. The reliance on contractors is so much that the Nigerian government has been described as government by contractors, with contractors, for contractors. As these contractors are virtually all in the private sector, there is a close symbiotic relationship between the government and the private sector.

i) coordination (in what arenas, for what sectoral issues)

j) Government relations with the private sector

k) staff and line functions

l) other

Implementation of roles and role shifts

Methods or vehicles for implementing role shifts

a) boundary management/sovereignty management

The role of boundary management is attributed to the National Boundaries Commission which has the responsibility to deal with, determine and intervene in any boundary dispute that may arise between Nigeria and any of her neighbors or between any two States of the Federation with a view to settling such disputes.

b) inter-sovereignty capabilities

 Sovereignty management is the responsibility of the National Defense Council chaired by the President which has competence on matters relating to the defense of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Nigeria.

c) linkages with NGOs, cooperatives, business etc.

d) green management

Green management is part of the responsibility of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency.

e) alternative channels for service delivery

f) promotion and facilitation of private sector development

g) other


Major issues raised in the implementation of role shifts

a) governmental, public sector society-wise sector

b) administrative reform vs. state reform

c) isolated Government vs. "partnership" Government

d) management of change methods

e) other

The major issue in the implementation of role shifts is that of the creation of extra-ministerial technical agencies at all levels.


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of changing role/scope of government. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change



a) shifts in unitary/federal/composite formats

During the colonial period, Nigeria had a unified administrative structure in which there was devolution of power to administrative organs of the three regions. Unitary institutions were dismantled in the terminal colonial period and a federal structure of government established. It was a "true" federation in the sense that the component units, regions, were powerful, had significant independent sources of revenue and clear areas of competence. Nigeria has remained a "formal" federation since then but there has been a significant shift in the content of its federal structure. The direction of change has been towards an ever-strengthening federal centre and ever-weakening federating units. At the beginning, Nigerian federalism operated a structure composed of three regions, constitutionally increased to four before military intervention. In 1967, 12 States were created out of the regions by the Gowon Administration. The number of States was increased to 19 in 1976, 21 in 1987 and 30 in 1991 by subsequent military administrations. This miniaturization of federated States by powerful military central administration has further enhanced the power of the central government and the character of Nigerian federalism has been shifting towards a unitary State with a strong dose of decentralization. The central government now has control over the main source of revenue in the country -- petroleum rent and has become the major provider of finance to State governments. State governments have no independent police or prison service and items under the concurrent legislative list such as health and education have come under effective control of federal policy through control of national policies and finance. In 1988, the Federal government took over control of local governments and their subventions are now disbursed directly to them from the Federation Account and not through State governments. In 1992, the Federal government created the Ministry of State and Local Government Affairs charged with monitoring and controlling the activities of State and local governments. The Ministry is also charged with the task of improving the executive capacity of local government which now has a revenue allocation of 20% of the Federation Account. The structure of governance is therefore characterized by excessive centralization of power accompanied by a deconcentration of structures.

b) balance between rural development and urban management

c) number and portfolios of ministries etc.

Even the number of ministries State governments could have is now dictated, from time to time by the Federal government. There are 17 federal ministries including the Presidency which has the following portfolios -- establishment and service matters, environmental protection, national planning and the Central Bank. There are at least 50 other agencies, commissions, bureaus, etc. run by government in 1993.

d) number semi-independent boards/commissions or agencies

e) decentralization


Note: within the concept of decentralization, there are various types of tendencies:

a) devolution

b) dispersion

c) deconcentration

d) de-bureaucratization

e) strengthening municipal/local autonomy

f) other


Also, there are various functions which can be decentralized:

a) co-production of service delivery; receiving system

b) resource sharing

c) responsibility sharing; co-responsibility

d) authority sharing

e) decision-making sharing (governance sharing?)

f) information technology

g) personnel management

h) financial management

i) planning and goal-setting

j) other


There are also various specific areas of decentralization changes:

a) mode of implementation

b) goals/reasons

c) impetus

d) context in which takes place

e) level of government involved

f) consequences/results/outcomes/evaluation

g) professional modes of access

h) cooperative schemes

i) self-governing/self-regulating mechanisms

j) strengthening nodes: NGOs, etc.

k) other


In the public finance area, transformational changes or changes with transformational impact

a) budget; expenditure control

b) receipts/taxation

c) public administration markets

d) other 


Criteria used to determine the content of shifts

a) productivity improvement

b) service accountability

c) ethics

d) budget reduction

e) government-wide v. targeted to a few agencies

f) degree of comprehensiveness/depth

g) other


Processes used to determine the content of shifts

a) high level blue-ribbon committee

b) staff analysis

c) multi-level dialogue within Government

d) policy dialogue with NGOs, business sector etc

e) society-wide dialogue with individual participation

f) strategic planning/management/corporate planning

g) think tank-mechanisms to predict futures

h) mechanisms for initiation and co-ordination of reforms

i) other


Processes and methods used to implement shifts

a) administrative learning

b) goals, objectives, scope, coverage

c) organizational analysis, strategy,

d) evaluation, assessment

e) training institutions/ training policy

f) managing decline and cutback

g) total quality management (TQM); continuous improvement

h) accountability management (anti-corruption policies, macro-measures to improve monitoring & control)

i) internal/external communications

j) increased flexibility

k) increased standardization

l) monitoring of initiatives introduced throughout the government

m) team management

n) legislative compulsion

o) other


Specific methods have been used to reduce resistance to change

a) training

b) meetings

c) relationship to on-going activities

d) redundancies

e) early retirements

f) other

Consequences for the civil service during these shifts In 1985, a panel was established under Professor Dotun Phillips to review the structure, staffing, operational modalities, efficiency and effectiveness of the Nigerian civil service. This led to the 1988 Civil Service Reforms, enacted by Decree 43 of 1988. It involved a major transformation of the Nigerian civil service which involved not only technical changes such as professionalism of the service but also a shift of power from the administrative cadre to the political heads of the ministries and extra-ministerial departments. The objectives of the reforms were the following: enhance professionalism; align the civil service with the presidential system of government; the decentralization and delegation of powers; the combination of authority with responsibility; enhance accountability; enhance checks and balances; the general modernization of information and data management; enhance effectiveness. The reforms have a clear objective of shifting the civil service towards a target setting approach of administration based on a new performance evaluation scheme. The reforms are aimed at instituting a mechanism for ensuring that each civil servant is performance oriented and produces the concrete results expected from him or her.

a) recruitment/promotion/transfer/mobility

With respect to recruitment, appropriate pre-entry qualifications shall be uniformly applied. The principle of federal character shall be adhered to at the point of entry, i.e. grade level 7 - 10. while thereafter, from grade level 11 and above, the criteria for promotion shall be based on the universally accepted principles of experience, performance on the job, length of service, good conduct, relevant qualification, training, performance at interview and relevant examinations where appropriate.

b) accountability and discipline

c) pay/remuneration policy, pension/retirement

d) decentralization

e) boundaries with other agencies

f) personnel involved: political policy types vs. directors of operations

g) coordination issues

h) loss of sectoral skills

i) reliance on external consultants

j) policy fragmentation

k) other


Methods used to measure impact of reform and development programmes

a) demonstrable behavioral outcomes

b) more directed management assessment, development and training

c) results-oriented management

d) performance-based appraisal

e) retro-fitting skills capacity

f) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change




Programmes undertaken in reform of human resources management systems/practice

a) career, incentives, performance, probation, promotion, management.

The administrative reforms stipulate that each ministry or extra-ministerial department shall have a personnel management board (PMB) which shall have two committees, one for junior staff and the other for senior staff. The committees determine personnel matters --establishment matters; appointments, promotion and discipline of staff; staff training and welfare and personnel records. A member of the civil service commission should be present in an observer status in PMB meetings.


b) recruitment/selection/development

The reforms allow for open advertisements to fill vacancies, within and outside the civil service but only when there are no potential candidates to fill the vacancy through promotion.

c) training policy

For the purposes of improving economy and efficiency in the operations of a ministry and raising the standards of performance by employees of their official duties to the highest possible level of proficiency, it is required that each ministry shall establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the training of employees. Training is now obligatory and periodic for all staff. Training is now crucial because the dichotomy between the professional and administrative staff has been erased and all staff are now considered as professionals.

d) training curriculum changes and needs analysis

e) retrenchment/redeployment measures

f) transfer/mobility

g) discipline/ethics/codes of conduct

h) merit/seniority/representational criteria

i) civil service pay and benefits; conditions of work

j) employee/union relations

k) retirement, pensions

l) statistics and planning; number of posts; structural policy

m) job descriptions/classification systems

n) other


Shifts attempted in reform of financial administration

a) budgetary planning

b) programme budgeting

b) revenue mobilization and management

c) budgetary and financial management control

d) zero-based/performance budgeting etc

e) compensation adjustments

f) accountability

g) value for money

h) systems of accounts

i) other

Considerable decentralization and delegation in financial management has been introduced under the reforms. The purpose of this is to speed up effective operations, policy implementation and decision making, particularly by officials at the management level. This financial decentralization is based on the assumption of enhanced accountability to prevent abuse. Each ministry shall also have a Finance Board which shall consider and approve its annual budget proposals and sub-allocate its quarterly cash allocation. Each ministry shall also have departmental and ministerial tenders board.


Improvements attempted in information management

a) increasing access (secrecy)

b) adopting new technology

c) policies on information technology

d) coordination of development and adoption of new information technology

e) training for information technology

f) office automation

g) decision-support-systems

h) freedom of information/transparency

i) new administrative laws

j) expert systems/artificial intelligence/neural systems

k) data banks

l) other

Productivity management and improvement

Overall productivity programmes/projects undertaken

a) what specific measures or methodologies

b) by what specific organizations or sectors

c) development of standards

d) other


The administrative reforms stipulate that each ministry shall have a planning board to approve its development plans -- medium, perspective or rolling and agree on the overall work programme and targets of achievement. Methods used to identify and install productivity improvement projects

a) research studies for productivity improvement

b) planning, monitoring, evaluation, supervision

c) implementation studies

d) systematic managerial assessment

e) training programmes in productivity

f) managerial autonomy of agencies/enterprises

g) inspection systems

h) performance management

i) leadership training; vision; values

j) cost-benefit methodologies

k) other


Outputs aimed at or perceived in the productivity improvement programmes/projects, along with demonstrable improvements achieved so far or projected

a) service delivery

b) relationship between government/public

c) Governance effectiveness

d) rule-making

e) public management transfer

f) crisis management

g) management of technology transfer

h) rationalizing administrative procedures

i) cross subsidization

j) steering capabilities

k) other


Units in government conduct research and analysis and how they interact with administrative units, especially the services they offer administrative units

a) planning units

b) finance units

c) management consultancy units

d) personnel units

e) policy analysis units

f) cabinet level/ministerial level units

g) Prime minister's/President's office

h) Commissions or Boards

i) R&D centres

j) administrative reform unit

k) academies/institutes

l) economic units

m) accounting units

n) coordination units

o) representative bodies

p) think tanks

q) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change