Factors in the developmental context, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) transnationalization of management change

The introduction and management of change in a society that aspires to reconcile the imperatives and demands of growth patterns with its idiosyncrasies, have proven to be problematic.

b) imperative to increase gender/women sensitivity

In recent years, the role of women in the country has been acknowledged and recognized. The Phillipines has a strong feminist movement, although in the more traditional sectors of the country, such as the rural areas, women participation in most development activities remain largely limited. This outlook however is changing as women take on more active roles in more substantial undertakings.

c) groups in society with needs and demands

Group interests are generally articulated and government appears to be sensitive to their demands. A problem occurs however when their needs and demands distinctly conflict with other sectors, particularly disadvantaged groups such at the urban poor, etc.

d) private sector needs and demands

Private sector interests are generally articulated and government appears to be sensitive to their demands. A problem however occurs when their needs and demands distinctly conflict with other sectors, particularly, disadvantaged groups such as the urban poor, etc.

e) local government needs and demands

Local government needs and demands are presently considered within the framework of the Local Government Code. There is now a growing consciousness towards decentralization through devolution.

f) mass migration and its consequences

For the past decade, the Philippines has experienced heavy migration of its working population who seek better opportunities abroad as skilled contract workers, domestic helpers or as technical personnel. Migration has helped to alleviate the unemployment problem and has also been recognized as having contributed foreign exchange to the economy at a rate of about US$1 billion annually.

g) environmental concerns

Governmental decisions on environmental concerns are generally influenced by local and international activist groups, as well as sectors from the academe.

h) economic decline or need for economic growth

Governmental decisions on issues involving economic matters appear to be inconsistent and reactive, depending on the volatile economic climate that has figured prominently in the Philippines in recent years. Pockets of economic decline in certain sectors are addressed only when the situation becomes critical while those areas experiencing economic prosperity are sometimes taken for granted.

i) development of political pluralism

The Philippines has evolved into a very pluralist society that governmental decisions sometimes tend to oscillate to favor one group to another.

j) other


Critical policy areas, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) education

While the country prides itself with a relatively high literacy rate that reaches up to 95 percent, there has been a perception that the quality of education, particularly at the primary and secondary levels in public schools, is deteriorating. While this is a matter that is difficult to gauge or measure, the impression the product of the Philippine educational system today is not as competitive as they were a generation ago. The reasons advanced for this state of affairs are many. Foremost among them is the limited budget assigned to education which has resulted in unrest among public school teachers who have constantly complained against low salaries. Striking public school teachers have become a prominent issue in the Philippines during the last two or three years. In fact, many teachers have resigned to accept jobs abroad as domestic helpers. This problem is further complicated by the lack of school buildings and other facilities which results in congestion in classrooms. An ordinary class for example in the primary and secondary levels in Philippine public schools may have anywhere from 60 to 70 students as compared to 30 to 40 a decade ago.

b) social security

The problem of social security has been a nagging one in the Philippines owing to the low priority assigned to this area in the distribution and allocation of the national budget. Pensions given to retirees are often not at par or outdistanced by the cost of living.

c) health

The problem of health has been a nagging one in the Philippines owing to the low priority assigned to this area in the distribution or allocation of the national budget. There does not exist a comprehensive and satisfactory insurance system in health. Likewise, one critical area that needs to be considered is the problem of access to medical attention by a good number of the population.

d) environment

The Philippines suffers from the lack of a comprehensive policy in arresting environmental decay. The most critical area here is the problem of a declining forest cover brought about by the government’s inability to control or curb illegal logging activities.

e) immigration

The problem in the Philippines is more on migration to other countries by its citizens.


f) criminal justice

g) agriculture

A major issue in agriculture is the problematic of land reform and how to sustain farmers who are given lands to till. This issue is also triggered by problems of absorptive capacity on the part of farmers who stand to benefit from the land reform law.

h) industrial

Some critical areas in Philippine industrial policy involve aspects of financing, prioritization of industries that are to be supported or provided incentives and the problems of technology.

i) public works

Several critical areas can be outlined in public infrastructure, foremost of which are those of energy, telecommunications, transport, airports and ports facilities.

j) micro economic reform

k) macro economic management

l) other


National context

a) population size and age dynamics

Definitely, a population that grows at an average ranging from 2.5 to 3.0 percent will impinge on governmental decisions affecting the polity. This unbridled growth in population levels have witnessed in recent years an increasing young population, generally unemployed or under-employed, and have brought problems of migration to the cities where opportunities are perceived to be better. As a result, there is now a growing problem of congestion in the cities with the attendant problems characteristic of urbanization. Urban decay such as criminality, drug abuse, traffic, transport problems, housing, sanitation and environmental decay have increasingly affected government decisions to focus or channel its energies and resources in the cities to the detriment and neglect of development in the countrysides.

Concomitantly, the pressure for government, both at the national and local levels, to address problems of metropolitanization has become acute as widespread deprivation and lack of opportunities become acute. Because it is in the cities where the seats of governance are generally found, government decisions appear to be more prejudice towards addressing conditions in large, thickly populated conurbations. It is also in this are where extraneous influences on government decisions become most prominent for resident in the cities tend to be more vocal, more articulate and more aggressive and vigilant in demanding response from the government against the peripheries which are generally reticent.

b) economics dynamics

Influences of foreign funding institutions as well as big business and multinational corporations tend to affect economic decisions of the government. The impact however of organized labor groups buttressed by a burgeoning middle class who are employed continues to surface intermittently so as to have influence on governmental decisions, particularly on enactment of mandated wage increases or adjustments.

c) social dynamics, including migration/refugee movement

One feature of the Philippine polity that presently exerts pressure or impacts on government decisions is the increasing trend towards hyper-pluralism. This may be attributed to the experience under martial law regime where policy making had been centralized and consolidated and where a number of protest movements from different sectors emerged to challenge government decisions. It is perhaps also a legacy of the Aquino government which sought to restore democratic institutions and processes and, in its wake, encouraged the legitimization of interest blocs that articulate various demands. The complexion of social dynamics is now thus influenced by inputs of these groups, which sometimes come in conflict with one another. Government decisions affecting any of these groups thus tend to balance to serve various interest so much so that often any firm resolution of social conflict becomes difficult to generate.

d) poverty alleviation, massive unemployment

While there had been some improvements in the quality of life following the ouster of Marcos in 1986, there had been no dramatic or significant changes in uplifting the quality of life in the country, as a result of factors such as commitments of government to foreign institutions. The effect of this is the continued decline in living conditions in a situation where income generated from employment often do not rise proportionally with costs of essentials such as food, shelter, medicine, etc.

e) labour relations issues

In recent years, labor organizations have become more agitated and more active, as standards of living become prohibitive especially in the cities. Labor has been restive and has been most vocal about the enactment of legislated wage adjustments. Wage increases, on the other hand, have served mainly to exacerbate inflation so as to aggravate the problems of the purchasing power of the currency. Moreover, mandated salary increases have resulted in the closing of businesses that cannot cope or meet with these increases. As a result, there had been tremendous pressure for government to balance demands from labor for more wages and from employers to hold back any such increases. Ultimately, the effect is a jelling of tension between management and labor which government has to arbitrate. In recent months, however, perhaps as a result of the stabilization of the currency, strikes have declined, although this would seem to be more artificial.

f) increasing role of judiciary

The judicial system of the Philippines has been generally burdened by the pressure of adjudicating a number of cases that remain to be unresolved either because of the complicated and tedious legal litigation procedure inherent in the country’s judicial processes or the sheer volume of cases brought to the courts daily. The judiciary, however, has served to arbitrate on questions of law put before it by various sectors and groups, sometimes to the effect of styming government decisions. There are occasions when government decisions are set aside because of restraining orders from the courts.

g) increasing impact of media and media relations

The Philippines prides itself as having one of the most independent and unrestricted mass medias in the region. It also has one of the most licentious, so much so that it has become a major player in influencing key government decisions or in exposing anomalies and scandals in government agencies. Ordinary citizens often have come more to the media than any other societal institutions to air or voice their complaints against government. Government howver has been so sensitive to opinions and reports from the media that often news reports of government abuse or misfeasance are attended to with a sense of urgency.

h) decreasing resources available to government

Declining resources have served to aggravate government weakness in its service delivery systems and have, more than any other factor, influenced wide ranging decisions on cutbacks in certain expenditures, particularly that of the social service sector. During the past three years, government has operated on a deficit and this has been a source of tension among financial managers of the country and the legislature. In 1990, the national government incurred a 36.6 billion pesos (roughly US $1.5 B at an exchange rate of P25 to US$1) deficit or 3.2 percent of the GNP. This in more than a hundred percent increase over the previous year which was estimated at 19.6 billion pesos. For 1991, the deficit ballooned to about 38 billion pesos and is expected to rise by 1992. As a result the deficit has to be financed largely from domestic borrowings, particularly through the issuance of treasury bills and drawdowns from the Central Bank.

The problem of decreasing resources in the Philippines has created severe discontinuities in harnassing the economic potentials of the country in the sense that such items as public investments in infrastructure in terms of building more modernized telecommunication facilities, transport systems and power plants are impeded, retarding in the process the flow of foreign investments.

i) relations of public service with politicians/ministers

The problems impinging on government in terms of deficits, a huge foreign debt, unemployment and similar concerns have served to emasculate administrative capabilities in service delivery systems, and as such have served as issues generally inviting attention by politicians. These politicians often use the breakdown in the delivery of basic services as a wat of championing grievances of ordinary citizens. To be sure, relations between public service agencies and politicians have been strained as bureaucrat bashing becomes a common preoccupation in congressional circles.

j) growing differentiation and interaction of various spheres in society

One of the problems affecting Philippine polity today is the emergence of interest and pressure groups that have varying and often conflicting interests leading to tensions of hyperpluralism which government needs to negotiate tenuously.

k) other


International context

a) size, availability, etc of foreign investment

The need for capital, technology and new markets, as well as to address the unemployment overhang have served as major impetus for the government to draw foreign investors. It is anticipated that the investment climate in the Philippines will improve by 1992 as a result of the passage of the Foreign Investment Act of 1991 which provides for more incentives to foreign investors. Japan remains a major investor in the Philippines, followed by Singapore, Hongkong and South Korea.

The Philippines has projected itself as a good investment area, which has resulted in an increase in the flow of foreign investments from 1989 to 1990 by as much as 53 percent. This mild success however, has been largely affected by a string of events that served to discourage foreign investors, such as the volatile political situation towards the end of 1989, the decision of the Philippine government not to allow the continued stay of American military bases in Philippine territory, and a wave of kidnappings.

Government decisions to attract investments, however, are based on priorities outlined in the investments program of the country set by its medium term plans. These are based on an identification of investment areas that are not likely to compete with local entrepreneurship or in crowded domestic industries such as garment and textile.

b) amount and types of technology transfer-in

Considering the scarcity of resources, technology transfers in the Philippines have been readily either donor driven or based on what foreign investors are willing to make available to their domestic operations. The extent of technology transfer are sometimes part of the package provided by funding and donor institutions in bilateral or multi-lateral assistance programs or part of investment structure of multinational corporations. The Philippines is hard put on importing sophisticated technology and a major factor that influences this is the country’s capabilities to import these.

c) nature of markets for national products

Within the international context, decisions as to where national products are to be marketed are influenced by the extent and nature of agreements and terms of reference (i.e. quota, etc.) entered into by the Philippines governing matters of trade and tariff with another country; the competitiveness, demands and viability of domestic produces, and proximity factors. Thus, markets for national products can be established in terms of the volume of trade made with other countries or blocs of countries such as ASEAN or in terms on convenience, such as Hongkong and Taiwan.

d) structural adjustment policies and programmes

Adjustments in policies and programmes are often influenced by IMF-World Bank policies, particularly aspects of trade, monetary policies, fiscal management, and taxation. These structural adjustments are generally made on the basis of demands from these international institutions as a condition for external financing and debt restructuring.

e) role of external cooperation in state redesign

In recent years the Government has extensively been influenced by external cooperation agreements and similar forces on matters involving economic, fiscal and monetary policies. This has been most pronounced in its dealings with the IMF-WB as well as other funding institutions which have served as a source of capital financing.

f) availability of external assistance/aid/grants

The IMF-WB and other funding institutions have served as a source of capital financing.

g) ethnicity

h) religious fundamentalism


i) anti-corruption programmes

j) role of transnation corporations

k) role of international consulting firms

l) role of international political change

m) role of multi-laterals and bi-laterals

n) global communications networks

o) global, regional dichotomies and grouping

p) international data banks

q) international expert systems

r) international evaluation studies

s) other



Domains of activity

a) disaster management/crisis management

 The series of laws and presidential issuance enacted since the Commonwealth period reflects the growing scope of the government’s responsibility in crisis/disaster management. The seventies was marked with the development of crisis/disaster plans which were operationalized with the participation of NGOs. The passage of the local government code in 1991 expanded and institutionalized crisis/disaster management responsibilities of local government functionaries.

b) environmental/natural resource management

The government’s role and scope in environmental and natural resources management has been increasing starting from the premartial law period. The 1970s was a period of widening concern for the environment and natural resources with issuance of several presidential decrees covering the national policy on environment, sectoral laws governing the environment and natural resources, codification of environmental laws, and the creation of a ministry and a council which were responsible for the management of natural resources and the environment. The 1987 Constitution is also explicit in its concern for environment and natural resources conservation. With the passage of the Local Government Code, local government units are also involved in environment and natural resources management. Lastly, government also initiated the involvement of non-government organizations in environmental renewal, rehabilitation, education and awareness.

c) electoral administration

The responsibility of the government in elections administration has expanded, in a way, with the enactment of the omnibus Election Code, which is an embodiment of laws governing the formation of political parties, conduct of clean elections, electoral protests, candidates’ compliance with election rules and regulations, etc.

d) legislative administration

In the 1986 Constitution (Art. VI) and the Executive Order No. 292 (Administrative Code of 1987), the legislative powers are vested in the Congress of the Philippines. It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The executive power is vested to the President.

e) judicial administration

Changes in the responsibility of the Government have taken the form of variations in the prosecution of certain criminal lawsuits and adjudication of certain litigations and civil cases. The ombudsman practice, patterned after that of Sweden, has been introduced to prevent the incidence of crime before it happens. This may be considered a preliminary phase in judicial administration that applies in special cases. There is also a special court that tries graft and corruption cases. The more widely practiced extra-judicial system of settling disputes is the so called "Katanungang Pambarangay" (village justice). One of the relatively recent innovations in judicial administration, Katanungan Pambarangay is being resorted to by people in the villages to settle their disputes amicably with the barangay captain (village leader) acting as mediator. This would relieve the village folk of the very costly procedure of filing lawsuits in judicial courts, and at the same time would lessen the volume of court litigations and thus would expedite the administration of justice.

f) sectoral management, which sectors?

Education: In pursuance of the constitutional mandate of establishing and maintaining a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels (Art. XIV, Sec. 2), RA No. 6655, otherwise known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1986 was implemented in June 1988. The Act provides for the nationalization of all public secondary schools which means that the establishment, renaming, conversion, integration, separation, administration, supervision and control of all public secondary schools and public secondary school teachers as well as other school personnel, including the payment of their salaries, allowances and other fringe benefits, are now vested in the DECS.

Thus, high school students enrolled in national and general comprehensive high schools, chartered and DECS-supervised schools, and schools administered and funded by local government units are free from payment of tuition and other fees except those related to membership in the school community. All expenses of the previously locally-funded high school, i.e. salaries and other personnel benefits, maintenance and other operating expenses, and capital outlays, are now being borne by the national government.

The Continuing Learning Delivery System, better known as distance education, which makes use of innovative and modular instructions, was provided to youth and adults who wish to finish secondary education without attending formal schooling. Educational service contracting continued to be implemented nationwide as an innovative and cost-effective delivery scheme whereby surpluses of public schools are enrolled in private schools. At the tertiary level, around 60,000 talented and disadvantaged students benefited from the government’s scholarship and student loan programs since these started in SY 1969-70. For SY 1991-92 alone, some 19,737 students benefited from these programs. Non-formal education and training programs in 1992 benefited a total of 361,714 out-of-school youths and adults in both functional literacy and livelihood skills, with 128,411 aided in terms of functional literacy alone.

Health: Sec. 15, Article II: The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them; Sec. 11, Article XIII: The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women and children. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers; Sec. 12: The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive to the country’s health needs; Sec. 13: The State shall establish a special agency for disabled persons for their rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.

Urban Land Reforms and Housing: Sec. 9, Art. XIII: The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such programs the State shall respect the rights of small property owners.

More low-cost housing units were also constructed in 1990 under the National Shelter Program in response to the need for better living conditions for the majority of the populace. Agriculture: The agricultural sector will remain the major source of growth for 1991. Sec. 21, Art. II: The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform; Sec. 1, Art. XII: The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices.

g) management of large scale social programmes

h) management of strategic macro-policies

In its Medium-Term Development Plan for 1987-1992, the Philippines adopted an employment-oriented, rural-based development strategy for attaining economic recovery and sustainable growth, poverty alleviation and employment generation. The objectives of this strategy, which became known as the Countryside Agro-Industrial Development Strategy (CAIDS) are: 1) to modernize agriculture; to make it more productive and efficient, and 2) to promote industrial growth and dispersal. The strategy relies mainly on private sector initiative that submits itself to market discipline.

The specific thrust in the agricultural sector is to ensure a stable supply of basic food items which is to be achieved through subsidies to encourage food production and thereby stabilize food prices. Specific strategies have been adopted for the various subsectors in agriculture. For the crops subsector, for example, major crop zones will be identified for a more efficient and intensified use of croplands. The objective here is to exploit fully the land use potential of croplands through the promotion of specific crops appropriate to their unique agro-climatic conditions. In such a case, the necessary support services and marketing facilities could be identified and provided beforehand.

The efforts to modernize, diversify and improve agricultural productivity, it is expected, would help raise farm incomes and create conditions for the proliferation of a variety of small and medium industries that are agro-based or that cater to the consumption needs of the rural population. The primary thrust of the industrial sector, on the other hand, is the industrialization of the countryside to be accomplished mainly through the promotion of labor-intensive cottage, small and medium scale agro- and resource-based enterprises. These enterprises could either be domestic or export-oriented which shall be encouraged through the provision of incentives as well as technical, financial, marketing and other forms of assistance.

To support or complement these labor intensive enterprises, world competitive large scale industries including tourism and its related activities would be encouraged to be established in the country. The necessary infrastructure support, as well as technical and financial assistance, would be provided to these industries. The countryside agro-industrial development strategy is area-focused. The Philippines is divided into regions where industrial core areas would be identified. Each region would be divided into economic districts on the basis of homogeneity, contiguity, nodality and politico-administrative boundaries. The strategy also envisions a number of modern small and medium scale industries to be established and grouped together in the core city in each district of the country.

These groupings will be composed of an anchor processing activity centered on the raw materials readily available in the district. A major support component is the provision of rural infrastructure. This includes farm-to-market roads, irrigation, electricity, water systems, transportation, communication, financial/credit facilities. These facilities are necessary to encourage private investments in the identified CAIDS areas.

Another important component is the development of human resources. This implies the organization of the target clientele into viable productive groups and the provision of basic social services in health, education and training. Through the organized groups, various activities, such as cooperative development and hands-on training in agricultural production and processing activities, could be promoted.

i) economic reform, including privatization

j) population increases and consequences

k) resource mobilization

l) international competitiveness

m) commercialisation

n) privatisation

o) contracting out

p) corporatisation

q) other

Police administration is one public administration area or government responsibility which may be considered very dynamic in the sense that it has gone through drastic changes within the last decade and a half. Before the Martial Law regime, police function was a local government responsibility, under the administrative supervision and control of local authorities. In 1976, police function became a national government responsibility with the creation of the Integrated National Police (INP) which was under the supervision of the Philippine Constabulary, a branch of the AFP.


By virtue of R.A. 6975 enacted in 1990, the INP, renamed the Philippine National Police (PNP), has been removed from the control of a military organization -- the PC which has been dissolved and placed under the supervision of the reorganized Department of Local Government—now the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). The PC officers and enlisted men have been absorbed by PNP or retained by AFP.

Two highly significant changes in the responsibility of the Government, as far as police administration is concerned have taken place: the shifting of administrative control and supervision over the police force from a military to a civilian organization; and the empowerment of local executives to exercise operational control and supervision over PNP units assigned within their local jurisdictions. Operational control and supervision means that the local executives have the power to oversee and supervise the performance of the police forces assigned within their local jurisdictions, see to it that the policemen perform their duties according to law, employ and deploy their services to maintain peace and order and public safety in the locality. Reinforcing the change in and sharing of the Government’s responsibility with respect to police administration is the creation of the Presidential Anti-Crime Commission or PACC, which is empowered to run after crime syndicates and arrest big-time criminal offenders.


Government functions

a) regulating

b) facilitating

c) policy making:

i) definition and formulation of policy

ii) steering capacity/mechanisms

iii) central guidance/cluster or innovative mechanisms

d) implementation

i) through private sector, NGOs, QUANGOs, etc.

ii) coordination

e) evaluation

f) planning

g) reliance on contractors and sub-contractors

h) reliance on consultants

i) coordination (in what arenas, for what sectoral issues)

j) Government relations with the private sector

k) staff and line functions

l) other


Implementation of roles and role shifts

Methods or vehicles for implementing role shifts

a) boundary management/sovereignty management

b) inter-sovereignty capabilities

c) linkages with NGOs, cooperatives, business etc.

d) green management

e) alternative channels for service delivery

f) promotion and facilitation of private sector development

g) other


Major issues raised in the implementation of role shifts

a) governmental, public sector society-wise sector

b) administrative reform vs. state reform

c) isolated Government vs. "partnership" Government

d) management of change methods

e) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of changing role/scope of government. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change



Shifts in the overall composition of the Governance structures

a) shifts in unitary/federal/composite formats

b) balance between rural development and urban management

The Philippines, like some other countries in Asia, may be viewed as two countries: there is the developed part, i.e. Metro Manila and the other urban centers, and there is the less developed part, i.e. the rural countryside. Approximately 60 percent, or 36 million of the 60.5 million Filipinos reside in the rural areas (NSO 1990). Compared to its urban counterpart, the rural sector is disadvantaged, particularly in terms of the higher incidence of poverty.

In the first half of the last decade, almost one half of the families living in the rural area were below the poverty line compared to only one-fifth of urban families. The inequality between the urban and rural sectors has increased over time. In 1989, rural per capita was only 30 percent of urban per capita income compared to 75 percent and 48 percent in 1983. There are two major factors which have been identified by researchers to explain the persistence of poverty in rural areas in the country. The first refers to the existing socio-economic and political structures which exclude the poorest segment of the rural population from participating in productive economic activity.

The second refers to the bias of government policies against the rural sector, e.g., the concentration of industrial development and of infrastructure in the urban areas. The eradication/alleviation of poverty leading to the general improvement of the quality of life in the rural areas becomes therefore a primary objective of the development effort in the Philippines. The need to address the problem of poverty is balanced, however, by the new concern for environmental protection, i.e., to prevent the further degradation of the natural environment and the depletion of natural resources.

c) number and portfolios of ministries etc.

d) number semi-independent boards/commissions or agencies

e) decentralization

The decentralization of government operations had been advocated in the past in the Philippines, but much of the efforts were stunted or derailed as a result of the aberrations of authoritarian rule. The 1987 Constitution, however, enshrined once more the principle of local autonomy and mandated the legislature to enact a Local Government Code that would give more powers and responsibilities to local government units, i.e., provinces, cities and municipalities, in the delivery of basic services to the people and in the implementation of development programs/projects in the community.

Such a code was recently approved into law by the Philippine Congress. It provided for the transfer of the responsibility for agricultural extension, primary health care, certain public works/road building functions and the implementation of environmental protection measures from central government agencies to local government units. The Code also revised the allocation system and gave local units a bigger share in the internal revenue collections in the country. Moreover, the national vertical career system for sectoral personnel, e.g. agricultural extension workers and public health employees, will now be localized and be more horizontal in nature.

The devolution of powers to local government units is complemented by the increasing use of the private sector, non-governmental organizations, and cooperatives in the country as alternative channels for delivery of basic services to the people such as credit and other support services for small enterprises, dissemination/transfer of new technology to farmers, the operation of public markets, and assistance in nutrition and family planning. The decentralization strategy, it is argued, pinpoints responsibility for decision-making in governance and development on local officials and community leaders and encourages people’s participation in these processes.

This approach is expected to generate widespread initiative, improve local self-reliance and make government actions and decisions more responsive to local needs and problems. Overall, decentralization will give local level institutions a more active role in economic, social and political development, including addressing the problem of poverty in rural areas.


Note: within the concept of decentralization, there are various types of tendencies:

a) devolution

b) dispersion

c) deconcentration

d) de-bureaucratization

Upon assuming the presidency, Mrs. Aquino proclaimed that as far as the bureaucracy was concerned, she would limit bureaucratic gigantism, decentralise authority and deMarcosify the bureaucracy. Thus, she created a Presidential Commission on Government Reorganization whose task it was to draw up a comprehensive reorganization plan for the post-dictatorship bureaucratic structures. In 1990, reacting to the bureaucracy that continued to bloat under the Aquino administration, then speaker Ramon Mitra ordered the Congressional Planning and Budget Office, which is the think tank of the Speaker on economic and fiscal policy matters, to prepare a study to streamline the bureaucracy.

The primary criterion laid down in formulating a reorganization plan was the need to reduce the number of members of the cabinet (and therefore the departments) from 19 to 12. The idea met with resistance by the various heads of departments. In the attempts to come up with a "compromise" reorganization bill, a Joint Legislative-Executive Working Group on the Bureaucracy was created with the head of the Civil Service Commission as the chairperson. The Joint Working Group met only twice and has since been overtaken by political events. The proposed reorganization bill prepared by the CPBO was shelved and did not reach the floor for consideration.

e) strengthening municipal/local autonomy

f) other


Also, there are various functions which can be decentralized:

a) co-production of service delivery; receiving system

Under the Decentraliztion Act of 1967, co- production of service delivery in the fields of agricultural extension and rural health was decentralized in which case provincial and city governments were mandated to supplement or assist in the delivery of these functions.

b) resource sharing

Under the Local Autonomy Act, resource sharing was mandated as the cities and municipalities were given additional taxing powers within the framework of national tax laws. These additional taxing powers were meant to increase the financial resources of the financially strapped local government units.

c) responsibility sharing; co-responsibility

d) authority sharing

Under the 1991 Local Government Code, local governments were given significant responsibilities and the corresponding authority in the performance of some aspects of the following basic functions: agriculture, health, public works, environment and natural resources and social welfare.

e) decision-making sharing (governance sharing?)

f) information technology

g) personnel management

In the area of personnel management, in 1991 local chief executives were given enhanced powers over personnel matters. Previously centrally appointed officers like the local assessors, assistant assessors and budget officers are now under the appointing authority of the local chief executives.

h) financial management

With respect to financial management, the financial aspect of the devolved functions was likewise decentralized to local government units. In addition, local units were given the power to enhance their financial resources by allowing them to increase their rates of tax impositions. Aside from these, their share of the internal revenue allotment which represents the shares of provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays from the total collection of national taxes, was increased form 20% to 40% but on a staggered basis, that is, 30% on the first year of the implementation of the new Code (1992), 35% on the second year (1993) and 40% on the succeeding year and onwards. All these measures are supposed to lead to fiscal autonomy of the local government units.

i) planning and goal-setting

Planning and goal-setting is another aspect that has been devolved to local governments. In the past, local development planning has always been subjected to central controls but with the enactment of the new Code, local units were given a free hand in charting their own development paths. Thus, the requirement that local governments submit to the central government, particularly the Department of Interior and Local Government, their development plans for review, has been scrapped. In order to emphasize the importance of local planning, the new Code mandated the creation of the Planning and Development Coordinator position for every local government unit. This officer is responsible in preparing comprehensive plans to be submitted to the local development councils for review, conducting studies, researches and training programs related to planning and implementing local development programs, analyzing income and expenditure patterns and formulating fiscal plans, among others.

j) other


There are also various specific areas of decentralization changes:

a) mode of implementation

b) goals/reasons

Under the 1991 Local Government Code, a number of functions have been devolved to local governments in the Philippines on the following grounds: it is more efficient for local authorities to administer said functions because they are in a better position to respond to diverse and changing local conditions; it promotes local democracy since local elected officials are now responsible for the delivery of such functions; and it is more equitable in the sense that local communities are now more likely to get their due share of public services.

Within the Philippine context, the emergence of NGOs in areas that traditionally belonged to government can be seen not so much as a result of the process of expansion (or contraction) of government but as a recognition of government’s inability to deliver primarily because of limited resources. Such a situation has been exacerbated by bureaucratic problems including red tape, and graft and corruption. This has therefore created an imperative for NGOs to participate in areas that traditionally belonged to the realm of formal government.

c) impetus

Right after the overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship, non-governmental organizations mushroomed throughout the country. To a certain extent, this was an indication of the "democratic space" that accompanied the installation of President Aquino who attributed her accession to the presidency not to traditional party politics but to nontraditional political groups including cause-oriented groups and non-governmental organizations. From the outset, the Aquinoo administration seemed to demonstrate a bias for non- governmental organizations, and conversely, almost an adverse attitude towards the formal bureaucratic structures and processes that from her perspective were tainted by the dictatorship.

d) context in which takes place

In order to encourage their participation in governance, President Aquino assigned NGOs the task of monitoring the implementation of infrastructure projects under the Community Employment Development Program. Through the National Economic and Development Authority (that includes among its specific target clientele the NGOs), the Aquino ministration allocated one-fourth of the seats in the various development councils to the NGOs. This was later further institutionalized by a major policy enacted during the last months of the Aquino administration, the Local Government Code or RA 7160 enacted into law on October 10, 1991. The Code provides for specific NGO representation in various local special bodies, namely, the local development councils, the local school board, the local health board, the local peace and order council, the pre- qualification bids and awards committees, among other things.

The Local Government Code likewise provides an opening for NGOs to directly participate in local legislative bodies by providing them the opportunity to determine the various sectoral groupings in the local legislative bodies (be they labor, women, indigenous cultural communities, fisherfolk, etc.). Finally, the Code provides NGOs the opportunity to operationalize their comparative advantage of being able to organize the people specifically through the mechanisms of initiative (where the people themselves can directly enact laws) and recall (where erring local officials are recalled and directly removed by the people).

e) level of government involved

All the tiers of local governments in the Philippines are involved in the 1991 devolution. The new Code specified the minimum set of services for the province, city, municipality and the barangay to administer.

f) consequences/results/outcomes/evaluation

g) professional modes of access

h) cooperative schemes

i) self-governing/self-regulating mechanisms

j) strengthening nodes: NGOs, etc.

k) other

NGOs have taken the initiative to "take on "functions that traditionally belonged to government with the objective of supplementing, and complementing, government’s initiatives. However, in cases where there was absence of government presence primarily due to lack of resources (both financial and technical), NGOs came in and de facto served as alternative service delivery mechanisms altogether. Increased visibility of NGOs in the Philippine administrative system, especially during the post-dictatorship period may be understood as an expression on their part to take advantage of whatever democratic space has been provided by the prevailing "democratic" government. The flurry of activity in the NGO community may likewise be seen as an expression of the release of pent up energy among NGOs long suppressed by the Marcos dictatorship.

Among the "traditional" functions of government assumed by the NGO sector was that of monitoring within the context of promoting accountabilities. However, with the enactment of the Local Government Code, NGOs have ventured into other areas including the delivery of basic services that include, among other sectors, the following sectors: health, education, infrastructure and agriculture. Among the modes of NGO participation in governance that have implications as to the expansion (and contraction) of the scope of government, are the following: 1) joint ventures with government in the delivery of basic services; 2) build-operate-transfer (BOT) or build-transfer arrangements; 3) contracting out the delivery of services to private companies and contractors that may include capable NGOs; 4) privatization of the delivery of services altogether to the private sector that broadly includes NGOs.


In the public finance area, transformational changes or changes with transformational impact

a) budget; expenditure control

b) receipts/taxation

c) public administration markets

d) other


Criteria used to determine the content of shifts

a) productivity improvement

b) service accountability

c) ethics

d) budget reduction

e) government-wide v. targeted to a few agencies

f) degree of comprehensiveness/depth

g) other


Processes used to determine the content of shifts

a)high level blue-ribbon committee

b) staff analysis

c) multi-level dialogue within Government

d) policy dialogue with NGOs, business sector etc

e) society-wide dialogue with individual participation

f) strategic planning/management/corporate planning

g) think tank-mechanisms to predict futures

h) mechanisms for initiation and co-ordination of reforms

i) other


Processes and methods used to implement shifts

a) administrative learning

b) goals, objectives, scope, coverage

The Presidential Commission of Government Reorganization, created by Aquino, identified five fundamental philosophies of governance that in effect served as criteria and principles in implementing the structural shifts for governance. They were: (1) promoting private initiative; (2) decentralization; (3) cost effectiveness; (4) efficiency of front-line services; (5) accountability.

c) organizational analysis, strategy,

d) evaluation, assessment

e) training institutions/ training policy

f) managing decline and cutback

g) total quality management (TQM); continuous improvement

h) accountability management (anti-corruption policies, macro-measures to improve monitoring & control)

i) internal/external communications

j) increased flexibility

k) increased standardization

l) monitoring of initiatives introduced throughout the government

m) team management

n) legislative compulsion

o) other


Specific methods have been used to reduce resistance to change

a) training

b) meetings

c) relationship to on-going activities

d) redundancies

e) early retirements

f) other


Consequences for the civil service during these shifts

a) recruitment/promotion/transfer/mobility

Traditionally, the Commission had been the only agency responsible for the conduct of civil service examinations which provided the basis for its recruitment and selection program. By virtue of Republic Act No. 6040 and P.D. No. 1 this responsibility was shared with other departments and agencies according to the examinations given. Republic Act No. 7041, otherwise known as an "Act Requiring Regular Publication of Existing Vacant Positions in Government Offices" directs government agencies to post all vacant positions in the agency authorized to be filled in at least three conspicuous place of the respective offices.

It also required government offices to submit a list of vacant positions and their corresponding qualifications standards to the CSC. After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, the Commission issued MC No. 3 which temporarily eased the requirements of LOI 799. It ensured uniformity and simplicity in the implementation of policies standards and procedures on personnel selection and promotion system. The Selection and Promotion Board were merged into a single board known as Selection Board who is now tasked with the recruitment and selection of employees in the first and second levels of the career service who are entering the civil service for the first time or are being re-employed, reinstated. The Board is also responsible for the screening of employees who are considered for promotion.

b) accountability and discipline

Adoption of the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Government Officials and Employees (R.A. 6713) -- The law stipulates among others the duties and responsibilities of public officials and employees and the corresponding sanctions/penalties for their omissions or commissions; establishment of awards ystem for ethical behavior; and the institutionalization of organization and management support system that can help establish within public organizations an environment conducive to ethical conduct. Strengthening Incentives and Rewards System for Civil Service—Rewards for exemplary ethical behavior to those who have consistently demonstrated one or more of the norms of conduct such as commitment to public interest, professionalism, justness, sincerity, etc. Recognition of Employees Right to Self organization -- Executive Order No. 180 provided the guidelines for the exercise of the right to organize of government employees and the creation of the Public Sector Management Council as its implementing and administering body.

c) pay/remuneration policy, pension/retirement

Adoption of Salary Standardization—Republic Act No.6758, otherwise known as the Salary Standardization Law of 1989, was enacted prescribing a compensation and position classification system in the government. The new salary scheme provided for comparable if not higher rates for civil servants as compared to the private sector. The Standardization Law also sought to attract qualified and competent persons to join the government service by rationalizing further existing position classification and pay proactive in government. Geared to augment the salaries of government personnel are the grants of step increment to deserving officials and monetization of leave credits.

d) decentralization


Establishment of Measure for Decentralization and Deployment of Personnel—Efforts on decentralization were made on the passage of the Bill on Local Autonomy which devolved to local governments the authority over personnel assigned in their respective areas. Another strategy is the development scheme under the Administrative Order 117 which contains measures such as: 1) moratorium in the filling up of new positions; 2) the abolition of positions which have remained vacant for at least 2 years; 3) putting a 25% cap in the filling up of remaining central office positions; 4) reduction of staff by 5% at the end of June 1991 and 10% by the end of November 1991.Decentralizing human management and development functions in the civil service including actions on personnel matters.

Another move towards the decentralization of HRD efforts to agencies is the establishment of a Personnel Development Committee in each government office for the purpose of selecting and screening participants to training and development programs. Establishment of Performance Evaluation System—This is done in every department or agency to foster employee performance and efficiency and enhance organizational effectiveness and productivity.

e) boundaries with other agencies

The structural shifts have, in some cases, resulted in the delineation of organization jurisdictions and functions; in other cases, the structural shifts, to a certain extent, have caused some overlapping of functions.

f) personnel involved: political policy types vs. directors of operations

The reorganization of departments/ministries has resulted in: the laying off of personnel, many of whom are career civil servants occupying permanent positions, and the appointment of non-career officials (outsiders or political recommendees) to the positions of undersecretaries and assistant secretaries, which positions by civil service tradition and practice, used to be filled through promotion from within or occupied by those who rose from the ranks within the agency.

g) coordination issues

Complementing the work of other constitutional bodies, e.g. Commission on Audit and the Office of the Ombudsman to enforce public accountability among appointed career government workers. Closer coordination with state colleges and universities as well as the Professional Regulatory Commissions regarding the programs on selection and placement to attract competent workers to join the government service.

h) loss of sectoral skills

i) reliance on external consultants

j) policy fragmentation

k) other


Methods used to measure impact of reform and development programmes

a) demonstrable behavioral outcomes

b) more directed management assessment, development and training

c) results-oriented management

d) performance-based appraisal

e) retro-fitting skills capacity

f) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change




Programmes undertaken in reform of human resources management systems/practices

a) career, incentives, performance, probation, promotion, management

Career: relative to the mandate of establishing a pool of development-oriented and dynamic career executives in the civil service, a new system of granting career executive service eligibility based on merit and open competition is being implemented. A continuing career education and development program geared towards professional enhancement and upgrading skills and capabilities of career executive service officers are also being conducted. Programs on the corporate CES and the local government CES are being developed and implemented to officially include third level positions in these sectors.

Another program adopted by the CSC is the merit system for closed career positions. This is intended for closed career positions which are scientific or highly technical in nature. Incentives: incentive award program was established in the 1960s and further reinforced under the 1975 Civil Service Decree in the Philippines. The program recognizes that merit and competence must be rewarded not only in terms of salary and merit increases but also in terms of recognition and awards. Performance and promotion: the CSC introduced the Performance Appraisal System which instituted modern managerial techniques such as management by objectives in its processes.

Basically results-oriented, it provided government personnel with the necessary level of motivation and competence in the face of broadened responsibilities and increased administrative challenges. Programs on promotion, performance and qualification standards are undertaken to ensure that appointees in government can efficiently perform their assigned task. Under the SWAP-Work Assistance Program, the CSC assists government workers to exchange post and items with the approval of their respective head of office.

b) recruitment/selection/development

Administration of Examinations: The CSC adopted the walk-in and dispersed-type of career service examinations. The idea is to fill up positions in the government offices with qualified unemployed eligibles taken from the regional roster or eligibles, until such time that career service examinations will only be conducted if there are no available or qualified eligibles to fill the vacant positions. Adoption of Higher Entry Standards: To professionalize the bureaucracy, the CSC has addressed the issue of merit and fitness at the entry level. The passing mark for all the CSC administered examinations has been raised from 70% to 80%. This move serves as a basis for weeding out applicants who cannot even pass the basis test of fitness for the public service.

Introduction of Fast-Track System of Selection and Placement: This involves strategies designed to attract competent workers to join the government service, specifically college honor graduates and topnotchers of Board and Civil Service Examinations. Placement Center: This is a special program undertaken by the CSC to strengthen the recruitment function and encourage more qualified manpower to join the service. Placement Center was responsible for developing and establishing a more reliable mechanism of identifying manpower needs and of screening applicants for placement.

c) training policy

Past attempts to institute reforms in the first half of the 80s include among others the following: conduct of government-wide in-service training programs at all levels in the hierarchy. It developed training system for the civil service which took care of an employee training from entrance in the government service to his retirement; and encourage the government agencies to set up staff development activities in their respective agencies. Program for Evaluation of Resources Maximization in Training (PERMIT): This serves as a feedback mechanism on the actual conduct and administration of government training programs in the region. Present concern is in line with the expansion of the entire bureaucracy’s HRD efforts, wherein the concentration of the CSC is on the formulation of policies to guide individual agencies in the training and development efforts as well as in monitoring and controlling HRD activities.

d) training curriculum changes and needs analysis

CSC training programs now focused on: the conduct of value orientation and development, advanced leadership and employee relations, conduct of program for legal experts advancement and workshops for work improvement schemes. Training Needs Inventory: This was conducted by the CSC in 1990 in cooperation with the College of Public Administration, University of Philippines for the purpose of determining a specific training program for the bureaucracy.

e) retrenchment/redeployment measures

f) transfer/mobility

g) discipline/ethics/codes of conduct

Personnel and Audit Program: The CSC prescribes and adopts personnel inspection and audit system to promote personnel accountability. Relative to the inspection and audit function of the Commission was the conduct of the Ghostbusters Campaign in 1990 which involves the review of personnel plantilla, contract service personnel charts and payroll, etc., of target government agencies. The following activities are undertaken under the area of personnel discipline: response to complaints and grievances against government, conduct of labor education and information program, mediation and conciliation services, registration and accreditation of government associations, policy/guidelines formulations establishment of equal opportunities mechanism for government workers through equality advocates and providing secretariat and monitoring services for national congress of workers in government.

h) merit/seniority/representational criteria

i) civil service pay and benefits; conditions of work

The Salary Standardization Law of 1989 (RA No. 6758) prescribed a revised compensation and position classification system in the government. Added features of the law is the grant of step increments to deserving officials and employees based on their length of service and merits earned while in service. The present welfare benefits being granted to civil servants are being studied for further enhancement. These benefits include vacation and sick leave of absence, maternity leave of 60 days for married women, social security and insurance plans, health welfare plans, employees’ compensation which are in the form of medical services, appliances and supplies, and home development mutual fund or the Pag-ibig Fund.

j) employee/union relations

Under Executive Order No. 180, employees have the right to negotiate the terms and conditions of employment or its improvements except those fixed by law. Complementing the establishment of employee organization is the reinstallation of the grievance machinery mandated under the CSC MC No. 45. s. government agencies, an orderly settlement of disputes, grievances at the lowest possible level may be achieved.

k) retirement, pensions


l) statistics and planning; number of posts; structural policy

A comprehensive Management Information System was evolved at the Commission through the development of a number of subsystems including the installation of a document tracking system at its Office for Central Personnel Records (OCPR). The Commission also embarked on a computerization program with the acquisition of NYSIS AFX Computer System which enabled it to process various civil service examinations. Adopting Strategic Planning in establishing its long-range plans. This way, the CSC is able to identify both internal and external factors affecting its policies, programs and operations by defining its mission in strategic terms and priorities set over a two-year and five-year time horizon.

m) job descriptions/classification systems

n) other

Development of Civil Service Code: The Code serves as the bible of the Philippine public service. It consolidates all existing legislations pertaining to the terms and conditions of work in government. Establishment of Government Internship Program (GIP): This is one of the five components of the President Summer Youth Program. The CSC is the implementing agency for the GIP. The program serves as a recruitment mechanism for potential employees.

Conduct of Courtesy Campaign in the Civil Service: The program aims to inculcate among government employees the importance of prompt and courteous service and do away with the stereotyped image of rude, inefficient bureaucrats. The courtesy campaign of "Ang Magalang Bow" helped to facilitate public service. Initiating the Do-Away-With-Red-Tape (DART) Program: This program was a deliberate effort to use the bar of public opinion to get the bureaucracy to deregulate itself and make life easier for the transacting public. Through a purposive and organized DART communication program, monitoring system, regional network and institutional tie-ups people were encouraged to report cases of red tape and other irregularities in government. Establishing Livelihood Program: The program provides a means of income for the reorganized out employees and the low-salaried employees of government.

Fast-Track Provincialization of the CSC: The project maximized creative linkages and networking as its principle mechanism to fulfill its long-term plan of establishing provincial offices in all provinces in the country within a much shorter period. It hastened the massive operationalization of the front-line service package of the CSC for the provincial clientele as well as generate savings for the Commission. Panibagong Sigla 2000 or PS 2000: It is a program of self-renewal for the Philippine Public Service. Launched in April 1991, PS 2000 means renewed vigor in the bureaucracy by the year 2000, which is envisioned to be translated into a public service that is efficient, motivated and productive.


Shifts attempted in reform of financial administration

a) budgetary planning

b) accrual accounting

c) programme budgeting

d) revenue mobilization and management


e) budgetary and financial management control

f) zero-based/performance budgeting etc

g) compensation adjustments

h) accountability

i) value for money

j) systems of accounts

k) other


Improvements attempted in information management

The Philippine Government, cognizant of the vital importance of information technology in all aspects of development, has approved the National Information Technology Plan of 1989. The underlying philosophy of the Plan is that a shared national vision for utilizing information technology will benefit the country as a whole, based on the experience of other countries. The Plan documents the overall strategy of the government to make information technology contribute to the socioeconomic development of the country.

In this light, the objectives of the Plan are stated as: (1) promote the development of communication and information structures in the country; (2) improve productivity and efficiency in all sectors of the economy; and (3) support the development of a viable information technology industry. These objectives are to be achieved by updating all information technology-related national policies, establishing/upgrading information technology infrastructure, stepping up information technology usage, and enhancing government support to the information technology industry. The plan covers five strategic components: information technology in government, information technology in industry, information technology education and training, telecommunications infrastructure, and information technology research and development.

a) increasing access (secrecy)

An attempt at the improvement of information management can be seen in terms of the efforts at mechanizing and standardizing accounting systems of government-owned and controlled corporations. With such a standardized accounting system for government corporations, assets and records are safeguarded against loss from unauthorized use or disposition; transactions are executed in accordance with management’s authorization and existing government accounting and auditing rules and regulations; transactions are properly recorded to maintain accountability and permit the preparation of financial statements; and existing assets are in continuous agreement with recorded accountability.

This World Bank funded project facilitates access to the financial operations of the GOCCs, and at the same time prohibits the unauthorized use and disposition of assets and records. Another example of providing access to information is the Bureau of Internal Revenue-Information System Plan. Funded by the Asian Development Bank and the IMF-World Bank, the BIR-IS plan has three major system modules with 8 information systems and 37 application systems. The three major groupings are: the tax management systems, planning and legal systems and administrative support management systems.

b) adopting new technology

The adoption of the latest minicomputers by government agencies, as in the case of the Central Bank using IBM AS 400 D70 minicomputers, and mainframes, as in the case of the Government Service Insurance System using IBM 4341.

c) policies on information technology

On May 23, 1989, former President Aquino issued Executive Order 356, creating the Information Technology Coordination Council (ITCC). It was to formulate a strategic plan to harness information technology for national growth and development. All government agencies were required to come up with their respective information system plans. Section 3 of the EO requires that each department, major agency or government corporation shall designate an information system planner to prepare, develop, and implement information system plans of the respective organizations.

The National Computer Center shall organize, coordinate or provide guidelines for the activities of the government information systems planners. Memorandum Order No. 237 requires all government agencies and other entities with projected information technology resource requirements to submit their IS Plans to the Department of Budget and Management for approval, endorsed by the National Computer Center for rationalizing the allocation of government funds for this purpose.

d) coordination of development and adoption of new information technology

The National Computer Center is the government agency created in 1971 to fully harness computer resources in the public sector, effectively promote and use these, and improve management and control through maximum application of information technology. It is the lead agency for information technology development in government and championing the effective use of information technology in improving government operations.

e) training for information technology

The National Computer Center coordinates with the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) in: (1) supervising and regulation of private, EDPO training institutions; (2) setting up of standards for curriculum development; (3) formulation of rules and regulations in the operation of existing and future EDF training institutions. As of SY 1989-90, non-degree information technology courses are being offered by 87 training schools while degree courses are offered by 45 institutions. A total of 31,219 students are taking non-degree information technology courses while close to 27,000 students are pursuing degree programs. An estimated 1,000 students graduate from computer science and related degree programs annually.

Private companies and government agencies conduct their own in-house training programs, with a large percentage of trainees being graduates of non-computer courses. To promote computer literacy among professionals, a three-unit course on "Computers and Society" has been implemented in the curricula of all tertiary programs, particularly in Liberal Arts.

f) office automation

There are 814 computer-assisted offices in the government (representing 77% of the 1059 offices which responded to the 1990 survey of information technology resources in government). As of December 31, 1990, there are 11,174 computer systems in the government or an average of 14 computer systems per office. 99% of the computer systems in use are microcomputers; others include minicomputers and mainframe computers. Total expenses incurred by the government on information technology resources amount to 354 million pesos distributed over 234 offices.

g) decision-support-systems

In the agrarian reform, agriculture and food sector, databases/registries and information systems have been developed in the Bureau of Agrarian Reform, Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority, National Tobacco Administration, Land Bank of the Philippines and the Quedan Guarantee Food Board.These databases provide information for monitoring, forecasting and policy making in this sector.

In the labor and employment sector, The Department of Labor and Employment, Civil Service Commission and the GSIS have developed databases on employees, labor organizations and resident aliens. Information on service records and labor cases are in the databases. Occupational bulletins, strike cases and personnel examination records are computerized.

In terms of finance, security and national development, government revenues have been processed using computers. Information systems and databases on these areas are maintained by the Department of Finance, Central Bank, Bureau of Internal Revenue, and Bureau of Treasury. Details such as deposits in banks, financial schemes in the countryside, and receipts and disbursements are available in the databases, which are not open to the public.

A registry of firearms and statistics on military troops are available in the Department of National Defense, aside from the more common administrative systems. House and Senate Bills, executive orders, polling places, registered votes and political candidates are maintained by Congress. These databases have been developed to address the need of the legislative branch of government.

h) freedom of information/transparency

i) new administrative laws

j) expert systems/artificial intelligence/neural systems

k) data banks

l) other


Productivity management and improvement

Overall productivity programmes/projects undertaken

a) what specific measures or methodologies

Government efforts at productivity management and improvement can be characterized as fragmented, directionless, and reactive. It has no productivity program or project which is national in scope; instead, programs which are geared towards productivity improvement are usually agency-specific and industry- specific. Improvements in government structure, personnel and processes have, as ultimate objectives, effectiveness, efficiency, economy, and responsiveness. As such, national programs are directed towards the attainment of these four major goals.

On the other hand, the objective of productivity, while recognized as an important ingredient in national development, is pursued as an outcome of government efforts at enhancing employee capability through training and staff development, as a criterion for rewards and incentives as well as a promotion system for government personnel, as an indicator for personnel performance evaluation, and as a result of improvement in administrative processes.

b) by what specific organizations or sectors

c) development of standards

d) other


Methods used to identify and install productivity improvement projects

Programs geared towards productivity improvement come in the form generally of training programs, scholarships, fellowships, productivity research and consultancy services, the formation of work productivity circles/productivity improvement circles, and performance evaluation.

a) research studies for productivity improvement

b) planning, monitoring, evaluation, supervision

Productivity measurement in the civil service is done through performance evaluation. The first performance evaluation system (PAS) was established in 1952. The Civil Service Act of 1952 provided for the establishment of a performance rating system which would serve as a basis for personnel actions, employee development, and employee-supervisor relationship. Each department was required to develop its own performance rating plans taking into consideration the nature of positions with the department concerned. The performance rating plan of the agency concerned was, however, subject to CSC approval.

In 1976, the PAS was revised as a result of the government-wide performance evaluation conducted during the year. The revision of PAS hinged on the need to effect its linkage to management by objectives. The CSC came up with a new PAS based on MBO which focused on results, outputs or productivity rather that on input or work effort. The new PAS, while CSC-prescribed for adoption by the government agencies at the central and local government levels could be modified by the concerned agencies provided that the output orientation stressed in the MBO was hewed in the agency PAS plan and that the agency’s PAS was subject to CSC-approval.

Under President Aquino’s administration the CSC relaxed its supervision over the PAS and concentrated mainly on providing appropriate guidelines for performance evaluation to government agencies. Government agencies are now allowed to establish their own performance evaluation appropriate to the nature and peculiarities of their respective agencies. The attendant New Performance Appraisal System (NPAS) has the following features: results-oriented utilizing MBO and has clearly defined targets for a given period. It is divided into two parts: the first part indicates an assessment by the supervisor and subordinate employee of the quantity and quality of work of the employee against a target set for a time period; the second is the rating of the employee on his attendance, human relations, and potentials for other jobs.

c) implementation studies

d) systematic managerial assessment

e) training programmes in productivity

The provision of training programs is the most frequently used method/intervention for productivity improvement both for government personnel and for the private sector.

f) managerial autonomy of agencies/enterprises

g) inspection systems

h) performance management

i) leadership training; vision; values

j) cost-benefit methodologies

k) other

In the early part of 1984, the CSC piloted within its rank a variant of the world-wide quality circle movement. This CSC version was called the Work Development Circle Program (WDC). The WDC was envisioned a national program on productivity improvement in government because of its top-to-bottom nature of participant involvement in the program. The principal agents of the WDC were the rank and file employees who carry on the day to day task of the government. Another innovation introduced in 1986 as part of the reforms in the Civil Service was the work improvement schemes for effectiveness (WISE) workshop conducted by the CSC.

The objective of WISE is to hasten the government’s implementation of its productivity improvement program and the formation/maintenance of Work Improvement Teams (WIT) in various government agencies. The WIT scheme involves a small group of employees from an organizational unit who meet regularly with their supervisors to identify service-related problems and recommend solutions to bring about improvements in the context of the socio-psychological needs of employees and at the same time attain organizational productivity. WISE participants serve as lead implementers of the WIT in their respective office and as trainers/facilitators in their WIT programs.


Outputs aimed at or perceived in the productivity improvement programmes/projects, along with demonstrable improvements achieved so far or projected

a)service delivery

b)relationship between government/public

c) Governance effectiveness

d) rule-making

e) public management transfer

f) crisis management

g) management of technology transfer

h) rationalizing administrative procedures

i) cross subsidization

j) steering capabilities

k) other


Units in government conduct research and analysis and how they interact with administrative units, especially the services they offer administrative units

a) planning units

As provided for in Section 9, Article XII of the Philippine Constitution, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) serves as the independent planning unit/agency of the government. NEDA through the Planning and Policy Office (before) conducts legal and economic research for plan implementation and policy recommendation. It is also responsible for the coordination of program implementation. Presently, NEDA through the National Development Office, serves as the research and technical support arm that conducts studies and development of policy measures on the various aspects of the substantial functions of development planning and policy formation and coordination, evaluation and monitoring of plan implementation. NEDA is composed of two separate and distance entities: the NEDA Board and NEDA Secretariat. The Board is headed by the President as the Chairman and the Director-General serves as the Vice-Chairman. The members of the Board are the different Department Secretaries and the Executive Secretary.

b) finance units

There are two agencies of the government that conduct research and analysis related to financial matters: the Department of Finance (DOF) and the Department of Budget and Management (DBM). The Department of Finance through the Policy Development and Management Service group conducts policy research and development on fiscal and tax measures. Specifically the DOF extends the following services to the operating bureaus and offices of the department: reviews and coordinates the policies, plans and programs of the government financial institutions; supervises policy research and development on fiscal and tax measures undertaken by the operating units.

The Department of Budget and Management, formerly the Office of Budget and Management (OBM) is the President’s main staff arm in budgetary and management improvement. It assists the president in the preparation, execution and control of the national budget. Under the OBM organizational structure, reasearch and analysis is carried out by the following offices: Financial Policy Service—evaluates and monitors economic trends which affect government income and expenditure and the impact and implication of government fiscal policies economic growth and development; Budget Technical Service—studies and recommends changes in the budget format and modification in the national government office program structure; National Accounting Office—conducts financial and non-financial analysis in connection with the DBM’s accountability function; helps design and prepares government agencies’ accounting systems, in addition to reviewing units of work measurement.

In the DBM set up, research and analysis is performed by the Budget Operations Office which reviews and analyzes the work and financial flows, the budgetary proposals of local and national government agencies and corporations and conducts studies on economic trends affecting government revenues, expenditures, and borrowings. The DBM provides services in the preparation, execution and control of the budget of all national government agencies, local government and government-owned and controlled corporations. In more specific terms, the kind of interaction that DBM has with other agencies more particularly the financial agencies is defined in the kind of particular type of information or data input which DBM requires in the budget preparation, budget monitoring and budgetary control.

c) management consultancy units

d) personnel units

The Civil Service Commission (CSC) as the central personnel agency of the government is tasked to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness in the civil service. The Office of Planning and Management undertakes research and studies in the different aspects of public personnel management and administrative management improvement programs. The CSC organizes in each department, office, agency, government-owned and controlled corporation, and provincial and city government a Civil Service Staff. The necessary staff/personel, office facilities and equipment is provided by the department/agency.

The Staff serves as the liaison between the CSC and the Department in performing specific functions such as: provide technical assistance in all aspects of personnel management; monitor and audit periodically the personnel practices and performance of the agency; determine agency compliance with Civil Service laws and regulations. A Council of Personnel Officers composed of the Chief of Personnel of the different departments and agencies is formed, serving as the venue to promote through study and discussion uniform and consistent application of personnel policies. It also serves as the clearinghouse of information and stimulates the use of methods of personnel management that will contribute most to good government.

e) policy analysis units

f) cabinet level/ministerial level units

Assisting the NEDA Board in the performance of its functions are the cabinet-level inter-agency committees. These committees serve as the forum where public and private sectors including NGOs actively interface in project identification and development. The different Committees meet at least once a month or as frequently as necessary.

g) Prime minister’s/President’s office

h) Commissions or Boards

i) R&D centres

The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is responsible for the development of science and technology and for the promotion of scientific and technological activities for both the public and private sectors. There is an existing Inter-Council Review Board whose function it is to review the plans of the sectoral planning councils and the National Science and Technology Plan. Research and analysis is performed by the institutions that conduct specialized research to promote scientific productivity and provide technical advisory and consultancy services.

j) administrative reform unit

k) academies/institutes

l) economic units

m) accounting units

The responsibility to ensure that the resources of the government are managed, expended and utilized in accordance with the laws and regulations, is the domain of the Commission of Audit (COA). The COA established the State Accounting and Auditing Center to conduct research and training in response to the developmental needs and strengthening the internal control system. The COA Research and Development Foundation Inc. was also formed to promote research and development- oriented programs in the field of accounting, auditing, public fiscal administration and management systems. However, in the Executive Order No. 19, authorizing COA’s reorganization, SAAC became State Accounting and Auditing Office, limiting its function to the formulation of long range plans for a comprehensive training program for all personnel of the Commission and personnel of the agencies of the government with respect to the Commission’s rules and regulations.

n) coordination units

o) representative bodies

p) think tanks

q) other


Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

In the next 10-15 years, the role of government in the administration of development programs and projects will lean towards an area-based strategy. Planning, programming, implementation and monitoring and evaluation will increasingly be performed by local executive leaders previously assumed by national departmental offices. With the implementation of the Local Government Code, key programs in the social service sector and the economic sector will be under the direct supervision of local government executives in accordance to the needs of the sub-national political boundary each is accountable. Personnel devolved to the local government units will be under the direct supervision of the local elective official whose efforts will be harnessed as a team.

c) content of change

Concomitant to the area-based perspective of the local government executives, it becomes inevitable that the implementation of the different management processes will be integrative or convergent in nature. Various sectoral implementers will work in a coordinated manner in order to maximize the use of resources in the local area. Furthermore, the increasing role of non-governmental organizations as provided for by the new Local Government Code will draw NGOs into the mainstream of development processes in coordination with the government.

A collaborative effort will necessarily be forged under the devolved government. An area-based perspective will also put more impetus to local government executives to focus on specific persons in the clientele group who will be prioritized in service delivery. Increasingly, opportunities for the citizenry for direct participation in governmental management processes of planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation will be heightened since organized groups of the community would be given the opportunity to participate in the management cycle. Involvement of NGOs in developmental processes could facilitate and spur the involvement of organized community groups since the common perspective or strategy of NGOs is towards a "people-centered" and "people-powered" development.

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

National government departments will assume new responsibilities in the development process. Responsibilities for monitoring and evaluation, the development of local government capabilities for self- management and the assumption of policy advocacy roles will be the major concern of national departments stripped of more direct responsibilities in the planning and implementation of development activities. More convergent efforts at the national level is anticipated since new ventures for nation-wide concerns will now be the responsibility of national departments.

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change