Uganda

I. CHANGING CONTEXT OF GOVERNMENT

Factors in the developmental context, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) transnationalization of management change

The government's view is that the country requires massive and constant mobilization to bring about the unity of people.

b) imperative to increase gender/women sensitivity

Women in Uganda have the double burden of supplying the bulk of agricultural labour along with the domestic tasks of caring for children, the sick and the elderly, food preparation, water and fuel gathering. This burden has been increased by the AIDS epidemic and the resultant need to care for sufferers and survivors. As women's access to income, education, training, assets and resources is greatly inferior to that of men, increasing the access of women to social and economic services and to resources is an integral part of the country's development strategy and an immediate objective of the Government, particularly in the rural sector. A range of political measures have been introduced to increase the political representation of women at decision making levels. At each level of Resistance Committees, from village through parish, sub-county and county levels, one of the nine seats is reserved for a women's representative, who is elected only by women voters, in addition to any women who may be elected for the non-reserved seats. The government hopes that the significant results achieved so far can be further consolidated and expanded with policy support from UNDP.

c) groups in society with needs and demands

d) private sector needs and demands

e) local government needs and demands

f) mass migration and its consequences

g) environmental concerns

h) economic decline or need for economic growth

i) development of political pluralism

j) other

 

Critical policy areas, which may be increasing or decreasing in importance:

a) education

The government recognizes the importance of strengthening the education and training system in order the improve the skills base. The government plans to increase the proportion of public financing to education. The government recognizes the need to link training to the realities of the labour market demands and will ensure, through the National Manpower Council, that the training of students locally and abroad is geared towards appropriate skills for the labor market.

b) social security

c) health

Currently, one of the most difficult and far-reaching issues confronting the Ugandan society is AIDS: the share of HIV positive people has risen from 8% of the population in 1988, to 11% or 1.9 million people today. Although it is not yet possible to quantify its effects, the impact of the epidemic will be felt in all aspects of economic and social life.

The National Alliance against AIDS comprises the formulation and implementation of national policies and programmes aimed at containing the impact of AIDS on the society and economy, and to support AIDS sufferers, careers and survivors.

d) environment

The principle of sustainable development in its planning will be adopted through the formalization of conservation and environmental strategies, and review of existing laws and regulations on the use of natural resources. Alleviation of poverty and the achievement of sustainable development are the end results aimed at by the Government but efforts will not succeed if environmental conservation remains a concern limited to intervention by the public sector. The policy of the Government is therefore to address environmental degradation issues in a socio-economic and participatory context, based inter-alia on raising awareness in the public as well as in the private sectors on the need to protect the environment and the benefits to be derived therefrom.

The government recognizes the cross-sectoral nature of environmental concerns which will underlie all proposed programmes and activities aimed at expanding resource utilization, particularly in the rural sector, to prevent environmental degradation and the depletion of the very resources necessary to the sustainability of development. Through their input at the policy and planning level, including specific assistance for the finalization of the National Environment Plan, sufficient capacity and awareness are expected to be built at the national level, which can be used for internalization and implementation in the priority areas to be determined.

e) immigration

f) public works

g) agriculture

The Fourth Country Programme has as one of its objectives the provision of integrated support to rural development and agricultural productivity. Thus far, efforts for export diversification have begun to show results in the horticulture subsector and assistance in this area will continue so as to increase the country's production of non-traditional exports and reduce the current over-reliance on coffee as the sole major foreign exchange earner. Results of the third country programme in connection with the development of the dairy industry have included the formulation of a dairy policy, the organization of an economic system for milk collection, processing and marketing and livestock disease control. Significant progress has also been made to establish plant quarantine facilities and a plant inspectorate for the control of plant diseases.

Other results have been the development of agricultural support services to enhance agricultural production, export diversification and food security, which areas received special attention in the third country programme. Close to 700 km of rural feeder roads have been rehabilitated and upgraded, linking areas with high agricultural potential to markets, thus leading to reduced food prices and enhanced food security. An additional 1,300 km. is expected to be completed in 1992. Through community participation, special public works programmes have been implemented providing a much needed rural infrastructure and income generating activities in the war ravaged Luwero triangle and the less developed district of Karamoja.

The sectoral objectives included in the Economic Recovery Programme are to achieve diversification and sustainable agricultural growth through accelerated food crop production and an increase in the cultivation of non-traditional crops for export. To achieve the expected results, it will be necessary to improve yields through means other than area expansion. Indeed, it is estimated that 80% of the cultivable area is already under cultivation and any further expansion would be unacceptable on environmental grounds.

h) industrial

i) macro economic management

The government recognizes that management of public funds over the last two decades has been very poor and was characterized by callous irresponsibility, extravagance, massive frauds and embezzlement. The government agrees that financial management should aim at enabling government to achieve desired results of its accepted policies and objectives.

j) urban decay/infrastructure

k) micro economic reform

l) criminal justice

m) other

 

National context

a) population size and age dynamics

b) economics dynamics

Since the introduction of the Economic Recovery Programme in 1987, a number of major economic reforms have been implemented, including liberalization of the exchange rate and internal trade and efforts have been made at rehabilitation. The success of the Programme, in economic terms, is indicated by the achievement of GDP growth of 6.6% per year during 1987-89, a recovery of investment to 15% of GDP by 1988, and a decline in the rate of inflation from an average annual rate of 230% in 1986 to 27% in 1990. Nevertheless, the balance of payments current account deficit has continued to rise, exacerbated by adverse international price changes and public expenditure continues to outstrip revenue. Furthermore, 46% of the national budget has been absorbed by defense, and the share of both defense and general administration has increased during the past two years. The government is, however, committed to reverse this trend as announced in the 1991 Budget statement.

c) social dynamics, including migration/refugee movement

d) poverty alleviation, massive unemployment

Poverty alleviation is an overriding necessity in Uganda, where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. The majority of these are women who lack access to and control over the use and ownership of valued resources such as land. Because ganda is mainly a rural society, poverty alleviation is bound up with rising levels of farm and non-farm rural production and incomes, and with enhanced access of the poor to income and assets.

 

e) labour relations issues

The government realizes that human resources constitute the most important asset for any country or organization and that there has been an imbalance in planning with more emphasis towards physical and financial resources.

f) increasing role of judiciary

g) increasing impact of media and media relations

h) decreasing resources available to government

i) relations of public service with politicians/ministers

j) growing differentiation and interaction of various spheres in society.

k) other

In terms of social indicators, although the data is uneven, the picture is one of long term improvements, but current levels of access to basic social services are still low and there are significant disparities between men and women. Male adult literacy was estimated at 70% and female at 45% in 1985; in 1983, girls accounted for 45% of enrollments in grade 1 of primary school and for 35% of enrollments in grade 7; infant mortality fell from 133 per thousand live births in 1960 to 101 in 1989; life expectancy rose from 43 years in 1960 to 52 years in 1990; 20% of the population had access to safe water in 1989 compared with 35% in 1975-80.

 

International context

a) size, availability, etc of foreign investment

b) amount and types of technology transfer-in

 

c) nature of markets for national products

d) structural adjustment policies and programmes

e) role of external cooperation in state redesign

f) availability of external assistance/aid/grants

g) ethnicity

h) religious fundamentalism

i) anti-corruption programmes

j) role of transnation corporations

k) role of international consulting firms

l) role of international political change

m) role of multi-laterals and bi-laterals

n) global communications networks

o) global, regional dichotomies and grouping

p) international data banks

q) international expert systems

r) international evaluation studies

s) other

 

II. CHANGING ROLE/SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT

 

Domains of activity

a) disaster management/crisis management

b) environmental/natural resource management

The government efforts are concentrated on environmental planning and in strengthening the environmental dimension of national planning. Following the establishment of the Ministry for Environment Protection (now the Ministry of Energy, Minerals and Environment Protection), a national strategy is being developed, in part with assistance from the World Bank.

National implementation is expected to result in the maximum use and direct involvement of national expertise and rural communities, with a view to ensuring awareness and participation at the grassroots level. Impact will first be measured by the level of awareness created among the people on the economic benefits and income generation potential of environmental conservation which can be demonstrated by increased agricultural output in the medium term, through the reduction of soil erosion and degradation by using environmentally safe agricultural practice. For the public sector, returns on investment in the environment would also be demonstrated by an increase in tourism revenue. The organized private sector would also stand to benefit from an increase in the tourism industry. Expected results for each activity in this sector will be quantified in the course of project formulation; indicators of success will also be defined to allow for evaluation.

c) electoral administration

d) legislative administration

e) judicial administration

f) sectoral management, which sectors?

g) management of large scale social programmes

h) management of strategic macro-policies

i) economic reform, including privatization

The government will continue to pursue the policy of selective divestiture so as not to aggravate the conditions of the masses in regard to the incidence of poverty, ignorance and disease.

j) population increases and consequences

k) resource mobilization

l) international competitiveness

m) commercialisation

n) privatisation

o) contracting out

p) corporatisation

q) other

 

Government functions

a) regulating

b) facilitating

c) policy making:

i) definition and formulation of policy

ii) steering capacity/mechanisms

iii) central guidance/cluster or innovative mechanisms

d) implementation

i) through private sector, NGOs, QUANGOs, etc.

The government shares concern on the future need and effectiveness of technical assistance in Uganda. Measures have been taken to formulate a National Technical Assistance Programme Policy through the establishment of a National Technical Co-Operation Assessment and Programming Project.

ii) coordination

e) evaluation

f) planning

The government has taken steps to decentralize planning. The Ministry of Planning and Economic Development will ensure that this task is accomplished in the shortest possible time.

g) reliance on contractors and sub-contractors

h) reliance on consultants

i) coordination (in what arenas, for what sectoral issues)

j) Government relations with the private sector

k) staff and line functions

l) other

 

Implementation of roles and role shifts

Methods or vehicles for implementing role shifts

a) boundary management/sovereignty management

b) inter-sovereignty capabilities

c) linkages with NGOs, cooperatives, business etc

d) green management

e) alternative channels for service delivery

f) promotion and facilitation of private sector development

g) other

The government, in the UNDP Fourth Country Programme, will have an enhanced role to determine, in agreement with UNDP, the mode of implementation and execution of programmes and projects; there will be increased use of expertise, services and goods supplied by or through national governmental, non-governmental and private institutions in programme development, implementation and management. National Execution is taking root in Uganda and government execution and follow-up capacity have been strengthened with the establishment of the Government Execution Unit in the Aid Coordination Department of the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development.

Major issues raised in the implementation of role shifts

a) governmental, public sector society-wise sector

b) administrative reform vs. state reform

c) isolated Government vs. "partnership" Government

d) management of change methods

e) other

 

Describe your future projections of activities in the area of changing role/scope of government. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

The Governing Council has directed that the 5th Cycle of Country Programmes (1992-1996) should focus on capacity building, especially in the following areas: poverty eradication and grassroots participation in development; environmental problems and natural resources management; management for development; technical cooperation among developing countries; technology for development; women in development.

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change

 

III. ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT/REFORM/CHANGE

Shifts in the overall composition of the Governance structures

a) shifts in unitary/federal/composite formats

b) balance between rural development and urban management

c) number and portfolios of ministries etc.

d) number semi-independent boards/commissions or agencies

e) decentralization

 

Note: within the concept of decentralization, there are various types of tendencies:

a) devolution

The government agrees that the process of decentralization should involve devolution of powers direct to District Authorities and that all Regional Offices should be formally abolished. The government is also devolving powers away from the Minister down to Local Authorities.

b) dispersion

c) deconcentration

d) de-bureaucratization

The government reiterates its acceptance of the reduction of the number of Ministries and will be initiating action on the establishment of the Administrative Reform Commission which will carry out functional rationalism of Ministries. The Government accepts the recommendation that each Ministry be headed by a single manager, who is a Permanent Secretary, and if there are other Permanent Secretaries in the same Ministry, they should submit to the Permanent Secretary who is heading the Ministry.

e) strengthening municipal/local autonomy

f) other

 

Also, there are various functions which can be decentralized:

a) co-production of service delivery; receiving system

b) resource sharing

c) responsibility sharing; co-responsibility

The government notes the need for the Public Service Commission to shed off some of its responsibilities to line managers. In this regard, the decentralization for the establishment of Ministerial Service Committees will take place.

d) authority sharing

e) decision-making sharing (or governance sharing)

f) information technology

g) personnel management

The government has taken steps to establish a National Manpower Council with the overall responsibility for human resource management policies and programmes.

h) financial management

i) planning and goal-setting

j) other

 

There are also various specific areas of decentralization changes:

a) mode of implementation

b) goals/reasons

c) impetus

d) context in which takes place

e) level of government involved

f) consequences/results/outcomes/evaluation

g) professional modes of access

h) cooperative schemes

i) self-governing/self-regulating mechanisms

j) strengthening nodes: NGOs, etc.

k) other

 

In the public finance area, transformational changes or changes with transformational impact

a) budget; expenditure control

b) receipts/taxation

c) public administration markets

d) other

The strategy for the future as embodied in the 1990/91 National Plan involves a deepening of the programme of structural reform: improved incentives and regulatory framework, including trade and exchange liberalization; decontrol of the internal marketing and distribution system, elimination of parastatal marketing monopolies, abolition of price controls, maintenance of international competitiveness, improved climate for the private sector; continued rehabilitation of the economic infrastructure; strengthened economic management; reduced size of the public sector; modest overall growth of public expenditure, with restructuring to increase the share of priority areas and reduce the share of unproductive activities; increased revenue via improved tax collection and a broadened tax base.

 

Criteria used to determine the content of shifts

a) productivity improvement

b) service accountability

c) ethics

d) budget reduction

 

e) government-wide v. targeted to a few agencies

f) degree of comprehensiveness/depth

g) other

 

Processes used to determine the content of shifts

a) high level blue-ribbon committee

b) staff analysis

c) multi-level dialogue within Government

d) policy dialogue with NGOs, business sector etc

e) society-wide dialogue with individual participation

f) strategic planning/management/corporate planning

g) think tank-mechanisms to predict futures

h) mechanisms for initiation and co-ordination of reforms

i) other

 

Processes and methods used to implement shifts

a) administrative learning

b) goals, objectives, scope, coverage

c) organizational analysis, strategy,

d) evaluation, assessment

e) training institutions/ training policy

The government believes that enhanced training of top echelons of the Public Service to acquire new skills and new work attitudes so as to man the New Era Public Service will be necessary.

f) managing decline and cutback

g) total quality management (TQM); continuous improvement

h) accountability management (anti-corruption policies, macro-measures to improve monitoring & control)

i) internal/external communications

j) increased flexibility

k) increased standardization

l) monitoring of initiatives introduced throughout the government

m) team management

n) legislative compulsion

o) other

The government has already initiated action to professionalize cadres in the Public Service. Specific methods have been used to reduce resistance to change.

a) training

The government will establish Training Committees to coordinate training activities in Ministries.

b) meetings

Government notes the need for management teams in Ministries and accepts the institution of Annual Action Planning Workshops to review achievements and formulate action plans.

c) relationship to on-going activities

d) redundancies

e) early retirements

f) other

Consequences for the civil service during these shifts

a) recruitment/promotion/transfer/mobility

The government has already initiated actions include sustainable reduction of Group Employees, elimination of ghost workers and selective freeze on recruitment. The government notes the sequencing of the selection process to start from the apex and proceed gradually to the base of the Public Service. The government further notes the grouping of Public Servants into five categories in descending order of seniority.

b) accountability and discipline

c) pay/remuneration policy, pension/retirement

d) decentralization

e) boundaries with other agencies

f) personnel involved: political policy types vs. directors of operations

g) coordination issues

h) loss of sectoral skills

i) reliance on external consultants

j) policy fragmentation

k) other

 

Methods used to measure impact of reform and development programmes

a) demonstrable behavioral outcomes

b) more directed management assessment, development and training

c) results-oriented management

d) performance-based appraisal

e) retro-fitting skills capacity

f) other

 

Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/ prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change

 

IV. MODERNIZATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS

Inputs/resources

Programmes undertaken in reform of human resources management systems/practices

a) career, incentives, performance, probation, promotion, management

The government agrees with the need to evolve a new role for the Public Service as accelerators of progress and innovators of Results-Oriented Management. The government is aware that lack of Performance Appraisal Forms has been one of the major contributing factors to delayed confirmation. However, the situation has now improved and the government is initiating a proposal that if the confirmation of any officer is delayed, and the Public Service Office fails to consider the officer's case within the stipulated period, the performance of such officers should at the third anniversary of his appointment be assumed to have been satisfactory and the officer should therefore be automatically confirmed.

b) recruitment/selection/development

The government acknowledges that there are many problems with recruitment. The government has already initiated the use of a written examination to supplement the oral interview at the level of Permanent Secretaries and Heads of Department, and is looking into ways of expanding the scheme to cover the entire Service.

c) training policy

d) training curriculum changes and needs analysis

e) retrenchment/redeployment measures

The government needs to strengthen the Ministry of Public Service because of the role it plays in the management of the Civil Service which is instrumental in the development process. The government reiterates its commitment to the implementation of the Civil Service Reform. The government has already taken measures to reduce the size of Group Employees by 30% in 1989; and 50% in July, 1990.

f) transfer/mobility

g) discipline/ethics/codes of conduct

h) merit/seniority/representational criteria

The government notes the need for a unified Public Service structure with equal opportunity for any officer to advance to the highest post in the Service irrespective of one's discipline.

i) civil service pay and benefits; conditions of work

The existing overall salary structure for the traditional civil service is characterized by excessive compression, particularly in the middle ranges of the professional and management cadres, and by extensive anomalies within and across ministries and services. It needs also to be adapted to incorporate those former classes of group employees that are to be transferred to the established posts. The government has decided to take the following steps to reform the overall salary structure: rationalize salary structures as already agreed by the government in its White Paper, e.g., to establish a more appropriate structure of internal and external consistencies, and to address the inadequate annual increments and lengths of scale to improve the incentive structure by June,1, 1993; define benchmark jobs representative of the different levels of the structure as a guide to the job evaluation work to be done in the course of ministerial restructuring by July1, 1993; to introduce reformed pay and grading structures for the various service by August 1995.

j) employee/union relations

k) retirement, pensions

l) statistics and planning; number of posts; structural policy

m) job descriptions/classification systems

The New Era Public Service should emphasize the work performed and the contribution to the overall achievement of the organizational objectives rather than concentration on rules and regulations. The government recognizes the need for job analysis in the Service and will draw up proper job descriptions in the Service.

n) other

The current weakness of the Civil Service are not inherent but induced by economic factors.The government realizes that the most important requirement for moving forward in human resource management is the setting up of an effective coordinating organ. The establishment of the manpower council will be expedited.

The overall objectives of the Uganda Civil Service Reform to be implemented by the year 2000 are a smaller Civil Service with better paid, more efficient and effective staff; a Civil Service with performance-based evaluation system, fair and consistent implementation of simple rules and procedures that foster discipline while leaving room for personal initiative, shared values supported by regulations that ensure elimination of waste and savings through competitive approaches to purchasing and tendering, a new system of resource allocation to Local Governments based on identification priorities and the unit cost or value added of the services, a rational budgeting system based onidentification priorities and programmes, a mandate to undertake only those functions that it can effectively perform, reduced level of corruption backed by an effective police and prosecution function, a reliable information and data bases on which to base its decision.

 

Shifts attempted in reform of financial administration

a) budgetary planning

b) accrual accounting

c) programme budgeting

d) revenue mobilization and management

e) budgetary and financial management control

f) zero-based/performance budgeting etc.

The government sees the need for zero-based budgeting and spending linked to objectives and outputs. The adoption of such a system, however, requires training of manpower.

g) compensation adjustments

h) accountability

i) value for money

j) systems of accounts

k) other

 

Improvements attempted in information management

a) increasing access (secrecy)

b) adopting new technology

c) policies on information technology

d) coordination of development and adoption of new information technology

The development and introduction of an effective record system for personnel management in the Ministry of Public Service is central. Targets/milestones of computerized personnel management information system are: to install a monitoring system for the verification of payroll changes by June 15, 1993; introduce a computerized personnel management information system integrated with the payroll system, establishment control system and staff list for the five restructured ministries by October 15, 1993; extend the records management and the computerized personnel management information system, integrated with the payroll and the establishment list to the next set of seven restructured ministries by June 30, 1994.

e) training for information technology

f) office automation

g) decision-support-systems

h) freedom of information/transparency

i) new administrative laws

j) expert systems/artificial intelligence/neural systems

k) data banks

l) other

 

Productivity management and improvement

Overall productivity programmes/projects undertaken

a) what specific measures or methodologies

b) by what specific organizations or sectors

c) development of standards

d) other

 

Methods used to identify and install productivity improvement projects

a) research studies for productivity improvement

b) planning, monitoring, evaluation, supervision

c) implementation studies

d) systematic managerial assessment

e) training programmes in productivity

f) managerial autonomy of agencies/enterprises

g) inspection systems

h) performance management

i) leadership training; vision; values

j) cost-benefit methodologies

k) other

 

Outputs aimed at or perceived in the productivity improvement programmes/projects, along with demonstrable improvements achieved so far or projected

a) service delivery

b) relationship between government/public

c) Governance effectiveness

d) rule-making

e) public management transfer

f) crisis management

g) management of technology transfer

h) rationalizing administrative procedures

i) cross subsidization

j) steering capabilities

k) other

 

Units in government conduct research and analysis and how they interact with administrative units, especially the services they offer administrative units

a) planning units

b) finance units

c) management consultancy units

d) personnel units

e) policy analysis units

f) cabinet level/ministerial level units

g) Prime minister's/President's office

h) Commissions or Boards

i) R&D centres

j) administrative reform unit

k) academies/institutes

l) economic units

m) accounting units

n) coordination units

o) representative bodies

p) think tanks

q) other

 

Describe your future projections of activities in the area of administrative reform/development/change. For each projection/prediction, indicate the following, indicate what you imagine or estimate would be the:

a) rate of change

b) direction of change

c) content of change

d) agent(s) of change

e) amount of change

f) level(s) of Government involved

Ministerial and District restructuring is clearly emerging as a major task of the next 18 to 24 months. Restructuring assessments and recommendations for five ministries have been completed and are being reviewed by Cabinet; seven will be available for review by the end of March, 1993 and the balance will be completed by August 1993.

g) amount of continuity involved

h) assumptions implied in the prediction

i) other elements of the change